Can bone surface modifications help to identify livestock pens? The case of the Iron Age settlement of El Turó de la Font de la Canya (Barcelona, Spain)

Abstract

Identification of animal pens offers relevant information as to livestock practices in late prehistoric societies. To date, livestock pens have been identified particularly in caves thanks to the recognition of fumier deposits. However, that is more complex in open-air settlements because dung degrades more rapidly and macroscopic features are not often visible. In spite of that, these features have been recognised by microscopic analyses (e.g. soil chemical analyses, presence of parasites and spherulites) or by indirect indicators such as polished walls produced by recurrent rubbing by animals. This paper proposes the use of Bone Surface Modifications (BSM) as a possible indicator to identify animal pens in open-air settlements. Mechanical bone modifications resulting from either trampling or gnawing by pigs and by domestic herbivores are the main indicators. The current findings are gleaned from the faunal assemblage of the Iron Age settlement of El Turó de la Font de la Canya (Barcelona, Spain).

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Acknowledgments

We are grateful to all the participants in the fieldwork at El Turó de la Font de la Canya. The translation was carried out by Timothy Anderson. The authors are grateful to two referees for their comments on the paper.

Funding

The research has been carried out with the financial support of the Departament de Cultura (Servei d’Arqueologia i Paleontologia) of the Generalitat de Catalunya. This project has also been supported by LabEx ARCHIMEDE from “Investissement d’Avenir” programme ANR-11-LABX-0032-01 and the ERC-Starting Grant ZooMWEst - Zooarchaeology and Mobility in the Western Mediterranean (ERC-StG 716298). In addition, this research is framed in the MICINN-FEDER PGC2018-093925-B-C32, the 2017SGR1040, 2017SGR995 and 2017SGR836 research groups (AGAUR) and the 2018PFR-URV-B2-91 (URV) projects. Research at IPHES is framed in the CERCA program.

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Jiménez-Manchón, S., Cáceres, I., Valenzuela-Lamas, S. et al. Can bone surface modifications help to identify livestock pens? The case of the Iron Age settlement of El Turó de la Font de la Canya (Barcelona, Spain). Archaeol Anthropol Sci 12, 126 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-020-01068-4

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Keywords

  • Vertebrate taphonomy
  • Livestock pen
  • Iron Age
  • Iberian Peninsula