World Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 122–128 | Cite as

Elevated serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in patients with cyanotic and acyanotic congenital heart disease

  • Sai Zhang
  • Gong-Liang Guo
  • Li-Li Yang
  • Li-Qun Sun



The levels of ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are considered biological markers of congenital heart diseases (CHD). The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the clinical significance of serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in children with (CHD).


Chinese and English scientific literature databases were searched to retrieve published studies relevant to ghrelin, TNF-α and CHD. Manual search was additionally employed to identify other relevant studies from cross-references. The retrieved studies were screened on the basis of our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria to select high quality case-control studies for meta-analysis.


We initially retrieved 108 published studies (20 in Chinese and 88 in English) from database searches. Finally, 6 case-control studies (5 in English and 1 in Chinese) were enrolled in our meta-analysis, and contained a total of 160 cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) patients and 215 acyanotic congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients, along with 162 healthy controls. The results of meta-analysis showed that serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α in CCHD or ACHD children were significantly higher than those in healthy controls.


Our meta-analysis results showed that serum levels of ghrelin and TNF-α are elevated in children with CHD, and could be used as effective biologic markers in early diagnosis of CHD.

Key words

acyanotic congenital heart disease cyanotic ghrelin meta-analysis TNF-α 


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We would like to acknowledge the reviewers for their great advice on this paper.


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Copyright information

© Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sai Zhang
    • 1
  • Gong-Liang Guo
    • 2
  • Li-Li Yang
    • 3
  • Li-Qun Sun
    • 1
  1. 1.Outpatient Department of PediatricsNo.1 Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Department of Cardiologythe Third Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina
  3. 3.Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsNo.1 Hospital of Jilin UniversityChangchunChina

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