Diffusion, textural characteristics, and source identification of the heavy metals in the Karankadu mangrove sediments, South India

Abstract

Sediment core samples have been collected from the Karankadu mangrove areas in Tamil Nadu, India. To know the distribution, characteristics and source identification of the heavy metals Cd, Mn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were investigated and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS). From the observed results, the sediment textural characteristics silty sand, sandy silt, sand, and silt with sand were noted. The metal concentrations distributed in the following order of decreasing: Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd. The analysis shows that these metals have a much higher concentration close to the coastal regions. Enrichment factor (Ef) shows that Cd and Zn were moderate to extremely polluted and the following order of decreasing Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Mn. Pollution load index (PLI) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) reveal that most of the samples are highly polluted by heavy metals. Overall, the sediments of the Karankadu mangroves are moderate to highly polluted by Cd and Zn.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig 1
Fig 2
Fig 3
Fig 4
Fig 5
Fig 6

References

  1. Abrahim GMS, Parker RJ (2008) Assessment of heavy metal enrichment factors and the degree of contamination in marine sediments from Tamaki Estuary, Auckland, New Zealand. Environ Monit Assess 136:227–238

    Google Scholar 

  2. Acevedo-Figueroa D, Jime´ nez, B.D., Rodrı´guez-Sierra, C.J., (2006) Trace metals in sediments of two estuarine lagoons from Puerto Rico. Environ Pollut 141:336–342

    Google Scholar 

  3. Agoramoorthy G, Chen F-A, Minna J, Hsu (2008) Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Pollut 155:320–326

    Google Scholar 

  4. Aljahdali MO, Bala AA (2020a) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in mangrove habitats, using biochemical markers and pollution indices: A case study of Avicennia marina L. in the Rabigh lagoon, Red Sea. Saudi J Biol Sci 27:1174–1184

  5. Aljahdali MO, Bala AA (2020b) Spatial variation of metallic contaminationand its ecological risk in sediment and freshwater mollusk: Melanoidestuberculata (Müller, 1774)(Gastropoda: Thiaridae). Water 12:206

  6. Alongi DM (2002) Present state and future of the world’s mangrove forests. Environ Conserv 29:331–349

    Google Scholar 

  7. Bakshi M, Ram SS, Ghosh S, Chakraborty A, Sudarshan M, Chaudhuri P (2017) Micro-spatial variation of elemental distribution in estuarine sediment andtheir accumulation in mangroves of Indian Sundarban. Environ Monit Assess 189(5):221

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bakshi M, Ghosh S, Chakraborty D, Hazra S, Chaudhuri P (2018) Assessment ofpotentially toxic metal (PTM) pollution in mangrove habitats using biochemicalmarkers: A case study onAvicennia officinalisL. in and around Sundarban. India Mar Pollut Bull 133:157–172

    Google Scholar 

  9. Baptista Neto JA, Smith BJ, McAllister JJ (2000) Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments in a nearshore environment, Jurujuba Sound, Southeast Brazil. Environ Pollut 109:1–9

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bhuiyan MAH, Suruvi NI, Dampare SB, Islam MA, Quraishi SB, Ganyaglo S, Suzuki S (2011) Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and canal water in the tannery industrial area in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Monit Assess 175:633–649

    Google Scholar 

  11. Cevik F, Göksu MZ, Derici OB, Fındık O (2009) An assessment of metal pollution in surface sediments of Seyhan dam by using enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index and statistical analyses. Environ Monit Assess 152:309–317

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chai MW, Shi FC, Li RL, Shen XX (2014) Heavy metal contamination and ecological risk in Spartina alterniflora marsh in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China. Mar Pollut Bull 84:115–124

    Google Scholar 

  13. Che RGO (1999) Concentration of 7 heavy metals in sediments and mangrove root samples from Mai Po, Hong Kong. Mar Pollut Bull 39(1–12):269–279

    Google Scholar 

  14. Cuong DT, Bayen S, Wurl O, Subramanian K, Wong KKS, Sivasothi N, Obbard JP (2005) Heavy metal contamination in mangrove habitats of Singapore. Mar Pollut Bull 50:1713–1744

    Google Scholar 

  15. Defew LH, Mair JM, Guzman HM (2005) An assessment of metal contamination in mangrove sediments and leaves from Punta Mala Bay, Pacific Panama. Mar Pollut Bull 50:547–552

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ding L, Zhao K, Zhang L et al (2019) Distribution and speciation of mercury affected by humic acid in mariculture sites at the Pearl River estuary. Environ Pollut 240:623–629

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ergin M, Saydam C, Baştürk Ö, Erdem E, Yörük R (1991) Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments from the two coastal inlets (Golden Horn Estuary and Ä°zmit Bay) of the northeastern Sea of Marmara. Chem Geol 91(3):269–285

    Google Scholar 

  18. Esen E, Kucuksezgin F, Uluturhan E (2010) Assessment of trace metal pollution in surface sediments of Nemrut Bay Aegean Sea. Environ Monit Assess 160(1–4):257–266

    Google Scholar 

  19. Fan Y, Zheng K, Zhu Z, Chen G, Peng X (2019) Distribution, sedimentary record, and persistence of microplastics in the Pearl River catchment, China. Environ Pollut 251:862–870

  20. Forstner U, Ahlf W, Calmano W, Kersten M (1990) Sediment Criteria development: contributions from environmental geochemistry to water quality management. In: Heling D, Rothe P, Forstner U, Stoffers P (eds) Sediment and environmental geochemistry: selected aspects can case histories. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 311–338

    Google Scholar 

  21. Fung CN, Zheng GJ, Connell DW, Zhang X, Wong HL, Giesy JP, Fang Z, Lam PKS (2005) Risks posed by trace organic contaminants in coastal sediments in the Pearl River Delta. China. Mar Pollut Bull 50:1036–1049

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gao X, Zhou F, Lui H-K, Lou J-Y, Chen C-TA, Zhuang W (2016) Trace metals in surface sediments of the Taiwan Strait: geochemical characteristics and environmental indication. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:10494–10503. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5669-y

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gilman Eric L, Ellison Joanna, Duke Norman C, Field Colin (2008) Threats to mangroves from climate change and adaptation options. Aquat Bot. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2007.12.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Gnanachandrasamy G, Wang S, Liping M, Jianming Z, Zhou YZ (2020) Distribution determination, risk assessment, and source identification of heavy metals in mangrove wetland sediments from Qi’ao Island, South China. Reg Stud Mar Sci 33:100961. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2019.100961

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Golestaninasab M, Malek M, Roohi A, Karbassi AR, Amoozadeh E, Rashidinejad R, Ghayoumi R, Sures B (2014) A survey on bioconcentration capacities of some marine parasitic and free-living organisms in the Gulf of Oman. Ecol Indic 37:99–104

    Google Scholar 

  26. Harkumar PS, Nasir UP, Mujeebu Rahman MP (2009) Distribution of heavy metals in the core sediments of a tropical wetland system. Int J Environ Sci Tech 6(2):225–232

    Google Scholar 

  27. Hossain MD, Nuruddin AA (2016) Soil and mangrove: a review. J Environ Sci Technol 9:198–207. https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2016.198.207

  28. Li C, Chengwen S, Yanyan Y, Menghan S, Ping T, Mihua S (2015) Spatial distribution and risk assessment of heavy metals in sediments of Shuangtaizi estuary, China. Mar Pollut Bull 98:358–364

    Google Scholar 

  29. Long ER, MacDonald DD, Smith SL, Calder FD (1995) Incidence of adverse biological effects within ranges of chemical concentrations in marine and estuarine sediments Environ. Manage 19:81–97

    Google Scholar 

  30. Loring DH, Rantala RTT (1992) Manual for the geochemical analyses of Mar sediments and suspended particulate matter. Earth Sci Rev 32:235–283

    Google Scholar 

  31. Lu Y, Yin W, Huang LB et al (2011) Assessment of bioaccessibility and exposure risk of arsenic and lead in urban soils of Guangzhou City, China. Environ Geochem Health 33:93–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-010-9324-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Magesh NS, Chandrasekar N, Krishna Kumar S, Glory M (2013) Trace element contamination in the estuarine sediments along Tuticorin coast– Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India. Mar Pollut Bull 73:355–361

    Google Scholar 

  33. MacFarlane GR, Pulkownik A, Burchett MD (2003) Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in the grey mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh: Biological indication potential. Environ Pollut 123:139–151

    Google Scholar 

  34. Marchand C, Allenbach M, Lallier-Vergès E (2011) Relationships between heavy metals distribution and organic matter cycling in mangrove sediments (Conception Bay, New Caledonia). Geoderma 160:444–456

    Google Scholar 

  35. Marchand C, Allenbach M, Lallier-Vergès E (2016) Relationships between heavy metals distribution and organic matter cycling in mangrove sediments (Conception Bay, New Caledonia). Geoderma 160:444–456

  36. Meza-Figueroa D, Maier RM, de la O- Villanueva M, Gómez-Alvarez A, Moreno-Zazueta A, Rivera J, Campillo A, Grandlic C, Anaya R, Palafox-Reyes J (2009) The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico. Chemosphere 77:140–147

  37. Mucha AP, Vasconcelos MTSD, Bordalo AA (2003) Macrobenthic community in the Douro Estuary: relations with trace metals and natural sediment characteristics. Environ Pollut 121:169–180

    Google Scholar 

  38. Müller G (1969) Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geojournal 2:108–118

    Google Scholar 

  39. Muller G (1979) Schwermetalle in den sediment des Rheins, Veranderungem Seit 1971. Umschau 79:778–783

    Google Scholar 

  40. Pan K, Wang WX (2012) Trace metal contamination in estuarine and coastal environments in China. Sci Total Environ 421–422:3–16

    Google Scholar 

  41. Pettijohn FJ (1948) A Preface to the classification of the sedimentary rocks. J Geol 56(2):112–117. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30070801

  42. Ramos e Silva CA, da Silva AP, de Oliveira SR (2006) Concentration, stock and transport rate of heavy metals in a tropical red mangrove, Natal, Brazil. Mar Chem 99:2–11

    Google Scholar 

  43. Rubio B, Nombela MA, Vilas F (2000) Geochemistry of major and trace elements in sediments of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain): an assessment of metal pollution. Mar Pollut Bull 40(11):968–980

    Google Scholar 

  44. Rumisha C, Mdegela RH, Kochzius M, Leermakers M, Elskens M (2016) Trace metals in the giant tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and mangrove sediments of the Tanzania coast: is there a risk to marine fauna and public health. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 132:77–86

    Google Scholar 

  45. Saha, Sarkar SK, Bhattacharya B (2006) Interspecific variation in heavy metal body concentrations in biota of Sunderban mangrove wetland, northeast India. Environ Int 32:203–207

    Google Scholar 

  46. Saifullah SM (2004) Land use—Iron pollution in Mangrove habitat of Karachi Indus Delta. Earth Interact 18(17):1–9

    Google Scholar 

  47. Silva CAR, Lacerda LD, Rezende CE (1990) Metal reservoir in a red mangrove forest. Biotropica 22:339–345

    Google Scholar 

  48. Silva CAR, da Silva AP, de Oliveira SR (2006) Concentration, stock and transport rate of heavy metals in a tropical red mangrove, Natal, Brazil. Mar Chem 99:2–11

    Google Scholar 

  49. Soares MLG (1999) Estrutura vegetal e grau de perturbaçao dos manguezais da Lagoa da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Brasil Rev Bras Biol 59:503–515

    Google Scholar 

  50. Sundaramanickam A, Shanmugam N, Cholan S, Kumaresan S, Madeswaran P, Balasubramanian T (2016) Spatial variability of heavy metals in estuarine, mangrove and coastal ecosystems along Parangipettai, Southeast coast of India. Environ Pollut 218:186–195

    Google Scholar 

  51. Tam NFY, Wong YS (1993) Retention of nutrients and heavy metals in mangrove sediments receiving wastewater of different strengths. Environ Technol 14:719–729

    Google Scholar 

  52. Tam NFY, Wong YS (2000) Spatial variation of heavy metals in surface sediments of Hong Kong mangrove swamps. Environ Pollut 110:195–205

    Google Scholar 

  53. Taylor SR (1964) Abundances of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 28(8):1273–1285

    Google Scholar 

  54. Tomlinson DL, Wilson JG, Harris CR et al (1980) Problems in the assessmentof heavy metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgolander Meeresuntersuchungen 33:566–575. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02414780

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Trefethen JM (1950) Classifaication of sediments. Amer Jour Sci 248:55–62

    Google Scholar 

  56. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2001) The Role of screening-level risk assessments and refining contaminants of concern in baseline ecological risk assessments. Publication 9345:0–14

  57. Usman ARA, Alkredaa RS, Al-Wabel MI (2013) Heavy metal contamination in sediments and mangroves from the coast of Red Sea: Avicennia marina as potential metal bioaccumulator. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 97:263–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2013.08.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Wang J, Zhao Z, Zhao G, Zhang Z, Wang P (2010) Research progress of content and speciation of heavy metals element in sediment of mangrove wetlands. J Hainan Normal Univ (Natural Science) 23(3):343–346 (in Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  59. Wang Y, Qiu Q, Xin G, Yang Z, Zheng J, Ye Z, Li S (2013) Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China. Environ Monit Assess 185(7):5775–5787

    Google Scholar 

  60. Yang X, Wu P, Yin A, Huan Z, Ming Z, Gao C (2017) Distribution and source analysis of heavy metals in soils and sediments of Yueqing Bay basin, East China Sea. Mar Pollut Bull 115:489–497

    Google Scholar 

  61. Zhang J, Liu C (2002) Riverine composition and estuarine geochemistry of particulate metals in China—weathering features, anthropogenic impact and chemical fluxes. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 54:1051–1070

    Google Scholar 

  62. Zhou Y, Zhao B, Peng Y, Chen G (2010) Influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 60:1319–1324

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gnanachandrasamy Gopalakrishnan.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Recent advanced techniques in water resources management

Responsible Editor: Venkatramanan Senapathi

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Sankarappan, R., Gopalakrishnan, G., Shanmugam, R. et al. Diffusion, textural characteristics, and source identification of the heavy metals in the Karankadu mangrove sediments, South India. Arab J Geosci 14, 329 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-021-06673-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Heavy metals
  • Mangrove sediments
  • Geo-accumulation index
  • Enrichment factor; Pollution Load index
  • Tamil Nadu
  • India