This study investigated the spatiotemporal evolution of hydrochemical characteristics and discussed the results of water quality assessment by using different methods. Eight parameters including total hardness (total HR), total dissolved solids (TDS), sulfate (SO42−), chloride (Cl−), nitrate (NO3−), permanganate index (CODMn), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), and fluoride (F−) were measured to evaluate groundwater quality according to synthesis analysis. Four methods including single-factor evaluation method, Nemero synthesis index method, fuzzy synthesis evaluation coupled grey relational analysis (GRA-fuzzy), and fuzzy synthesis evaluation coupled analytic hierarchy process (AHP-fuzzy) evaluation methods were used to discuss water quality. The results are fourfold, as follows: (1) the increase of Cl− and NO3− causes a poor water quality at several sampling sites, which demonstrates the influence of anthropogenic activities on groundwater quality; (2) hydrochemical parameters with stable and trace concentration such as As and Hg do little influence on water quality assessment results; (3) single-factor and Nemero synthesis evaluation method have almost a similar result, which has a large difference with the other two methods; and (4) GRA-fuzzy method seems more reasonable than others in water quality assessment.
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The authors would like to thank the Department of Education Project China (Grant No. XJEDU2016S088) and International Cooperation Projects (Grant No. 2016KJT021809) for their financial support.
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Responsible Editor: Amjad Kallel
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Wang, D., Yang, C. & Shao, L. The spatiotemporal evolution of hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Urumqi, Northwest China. Arab J Geosci 14, 161 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-06365-9
- Water quality assessment
- Spatiotemporal evolution
- GRA-fuzzy evaluation
- AHP-fuzzy evaluation
- Nemero index