Hydrochemical assessment and groundwater quality of Koysinjaq area in Kurdistan Region-Iraq


Groundwater quality and quantity are important factors for controlling water management. The importance of the hydrochemical analysis underlies the fact that the chemistry of the ground water can directly be rated with the source of water, climate, and geology of the region. The study includes the hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in Koysinjaq area, Kurdistan Region, to achieve their chemistry, quality, suitability for drinking, irrigation, and industry purposes. Forty groundwater samples were collecting during two periods (spring season and fall season). The physicochemical parameters, namely pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), total inorganic carbon (TIC), major cations and anions, and trace elements, were analyzed to evaluate the present groundwater quality as well as the possible source of ions in the groundwater. The chemical composition of water is based primarily on the minerals which have dissolved in it and modified by ion-exchange equilibrium. The hydrochemical composition reflects the hydrogen carbonate water type as Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Mg-Na-HCO3, and Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3 water type for the groundwater samples. All water samples have low sodium hazard (sodium absorption ration SAR < 9) and most of the groundwater samples has < 1.5 meq/L residual sodium carbon (RSC), which is good quality and suitable for using in irrigation for all types of soils. Geochemical modeling used to determine saturation Index and speciation of water samples calculated by using hydrogeochemical equilibrium model. Most groundwater samples were saturated for calcite and dolomite, whereas unsaturated for gypsum and halite.

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This work was supported by the Kurdistan Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Salahaddin University - Erbil, Agricultural Engineering Science College, Soil and Water Department. Also, the author wants to sincerely thank Professor Broder J. Merkel for his supporting of samples analysis and the staff of the laboratories of the Hydrogeology Department of TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany for assisting in conducting the hydrochemical analyses.

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Correspondence to Shwan Seeyan.

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Responsible Editor: Broder J. Merkel



Appendix 1 Locations, elevation (m.a.s.l), and depths of the sampled wells in the study area, UTM Coordination system
Appendix 2 Ionic balance precision of the chemical analysis for groundwater samples in wet season using PHREEQC program (wateq4f.dat)
Appendix 3 Ionic balance precision of the chemical analysis for groundwater samples in dry season using PHREEQC program (wateq4f.dat)
Appendix 4 Physical and chemical parameters analysis of the groundwater water samples for wet season in the study area
Appendix 5 Physical and chemical parameters analysis of the groundwater water samples for dry season in the study area
Appendix 6 Trace elements concentration (in ppb) of the groundwater water samples for wet seasons in the study area
Appendix 7 Trace elements concentration (in ppb) of the groundwater water samples for dry seasons in the study area
Appendix 8 WHO standard guideline of trace elements for drinking water and compared with the trace elements of studied groundwater samples for both seasons (in μg/L)
Appendix 9 Water type for the groundwater samples in wet season of the study area
Appendix 10 Water type for the groundwater samples in dry season of the study area
Appendix 11

Reclassify map for the chemical and some physical criteria in wet season

Appendix 12

Reclassify map for the chemical and some physical criteria in dry season

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Seeyan, S. Hydrochemical assessment and groundwater quality of Koysinjaq area in Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Arab J Geosci 13, 491 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05410-x

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  • Hydrochemistry
  • water quality
  • geochemical modeling
  • semi-arid area