Riverbank retreat analysis of the U-Tapao River, southern Thailand

  • Surat Semmad
  • Tanit Chalermyanont
Original Paper


Riverbank retreat is a result of complex combinations of several processes, including subaerial processes, fluvial erosion, and bank failure. The objective of this study was to analyze riverbank retreat of six representative riverbanks along the U-Tapao River in southern Thailand using a process-based riverbank retreat model. Field and laboratory tests were conducted to determine index and engineering properties of the riverbank soil required in the modeling. In particular, the erodibility parameters of the riverbank soil were estimated using empirical formulae, measured in situ by performing a submerged jet test, and estimated from long-term bank retreat simulations using the Bank Stability and Toe Erosion Model (BSTEM) incorporated with a lumped adjustment factor. The observed bank retreat over the period from 2002 to 2016 obtained from analysis of aerial imagery was used to verify the validity of the riverbank retreat results. Good agreement with the observations was obtained from BSTEMs using adjusted erodibility parameters.


Critical shear stress Erodibility coefficient Riverbank retreat BSTEM Submerged jet test The U-Tapao River 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Seppo Karrila for reviewing the manuscript, Dr. Eddy Langendoen of the United States Department of Agriculture for providing BSTEM v. 5.4, and Dr. Garey Fox of Oklahoma State University for providing a JET spreadsheet for the jet test computations. Finally, the authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments that greatly contributed to the improvement of the final version of the paper.

Funding information

Financial support for this study was provided by the Prince of Songkhla University and the National Research Council of Thailand, grant no. ENG570109S. This support is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringPrince of Songkla UniversityHat Yai, SongkhlaThailand
  2. 2.Southern Natural Disaster Research CenterPrince of Songkla UniversityHat Yai, SongkhlaThailand

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