Mineralogy, Fluid inclusions and stable isotopes study constraints on genesis of sulfide ore mineral, Qaladiza area Qandil Series, Iraqi Kurdistan Region

  • Tola A. Mirza
  • Saman Gh. Rashid
Original Paper


The metalized quartz veins is located 5 km west of the Iraqi-Iran border in the Qandil range. The quartz veins included sulfide and oxide ore minerals which mostly occur in the form of open-space filling texture. The polymetallic mesothermal quartz veins are hosted by marble and phyllite rocks. Within these veins, multiphase, open-space filling and crustiform, bedding to massive textures with pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite,galena, sphalerite, tenorite, azurite, and malachite are observed. Selected samples were analyzed by using ore microscopy and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ore minerals show replacement textures. The paragenesis diagram was made from a careful study of polished sections and three stages have been identified including pre-stage mineralization, mineralization, and post-mineralization stages.

Fluid inclusion microthermometric analysis of 15 primary inclusions of quartz veins indicated that ore mineralization at the studied area were formed by a mesothermal, low to medium density, and dilute NaCl-type fluid system. The source of the fluid is mostly metamorphic which became mixed with other fluids later. Hydrothermal fluids of the selected studied area were classified into two groups based on microthermometry study; the first group had a higher homogenization temperature (335.5 to 386.8 °C) than the second group (194.1 to 298.5 °C), with a small difference in salinity between them. Nearly each group has different complexes including chloride and sulfide complexes respectively. The results of stable sulfur isotope of the ore minerals (chalcopyrite and sphalerite) confirmed the sedimentary and/or metamorphic origin of the ore mineralization.


Metallized quartz veins Mesothermal Hydrothermal fluids Stable isotope 



We are grateful to Professor Dr. Harald G. Dill, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources/Hannover, for his insightful suggestions and comments. We are indebted to the three anonymous referees for their constructive and critical reviews, which greatly helped us to improve this paper. We are particularly grateful to the laboratory of the Institute of Mineralogy and Geology, University of Miskolc, Hungary, for doing EPMA and SEM analysis.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Science, Geology DepartmentUniversity of SulaimaniSulaymaniyahIraq
  2. 2.Geological Survey and Mineral Investigation of SulaimaniSulaymaniyahIraq

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