Comparison between VES and 2D imaging techniques for delineating subsurface plume of hydrocarbon contaminated water southeast of Karbala City, Iraq

  • Firas Hamed AL-Menshed
  • Jassim Mohammed Thabit
Original Paper


Shallow vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique with Schlumberger electrode array (maximum distance between current electrodes was 50 m) through 25 VES points distributed on five traverses. Two 2D imaging lines with Wenner electrode array 30 m each corresponding to two VES traverses were conducted near well water contaminated with hydrocarbon materials at Karbala Governorate, Iraq. It is found that these techniques can give good results in delineating contaminated and clear zones but the 2D imaging technique was better in delineating the boundaries of the contaminated water plume and gave clear image of the subsurface distribution of the contaminated water vertically and horizontally.


VES 2D imaging Water contamination Hydrocarbons 



The authors would like to thank the general director (Mr. Dhafir Abdullah) of General Commission for Groundwater and Investigations Department staff for providing requirements for achieving the fieldwork and helping me with necessary information about the studied area and the contaminated well.


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Copyright information

© Saudi Society for Geosciences 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Firas Hamed AL-Menshed
    • 1
  • Jassim Mohammed Thabit
    • 2
  1. 1.General Commission for GroundwaterBaghdadIraq
  2. 2.College of Science, Department of GeologyUniversity of BaghdadBaghdadIraq

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