Gaseous air pollution background estimation in urban, suburban, and rural environments
There is a great demand for estimating the ambient air pollutant background concentrations in order to assess the effectiveness of different emission control strategies. In this paper, the background concentrations of four pollutants, namely sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) pollutants in urban, suburban, and rural environments were investigated using Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ) filter technique. Air quality data from monitoring stations over a period of 4 years (2007–2010) was analyzed for three locations in Kuwait, namely urban, suburban, and rural. The spatial and temporal (daily, weekly, and monthly) variations of the four pollutants were analyzed. The results show that the levels of ambient air pollutant background concentrations were high in the urban site compared to suburban and rural area. The diurnal variation of SO2 concentration showed an early morning peak, while the diurnal variation of NOx concentration constituted has two peaks, one was in the early morning hours (5 to 8 a.m.) and the second was in nighttime hours (8 to 11 p.m.). These two peaks were observed at all three locations. The monthly background NOx concentration reached a maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Diurnal variation of CO concentration showed a similar trend to SO2 concentrations in all three locations. Because of the photochemical reactions that occur in the atmosphere, the background concentration of O3 showed an inverse relation with respect to background concentration of NOx.
KeywordsAir pollution Kolmogorov–Zurbenko (KZ) filter Openair Meteorological conditions Urban, suburban, and rural environment
The authors would like to thank Dr. Ali Al-Hemoud from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research for his encouragement, valuable advice, and guidance in the writing of this research.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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