Finding High-Quality Groundwater Resources to Reduce the Hydatidosis Incidence in the Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, China: Analysis, Assessment, and Management

  • Dan Wang
  • Jianhua WuEmail author
  • Yuanhang Wang
  • Yujie Ji
Original Paper


The prevalence of hydatidosis due to animal husbandry development poses significant health risks to people in the Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, China, where people depend mainly on surface water for domestic uses, which, however, is contaminated due to the development of the animal husbandry. Therefore, groundwater which is protected by the vadose zone and has better quality is now proposed to replace the contaminated surface water as a new source of water supply in this area. To find a high-quality groundwater resource, a detailed investigation and assessment was carried out in this study. The occurrence and distribution of the hydatidosis caused by the consumption of the contaminated surface water were analyzed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and national standards were applied to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose, and SAR, RSC, %Na, PI were used to evaluate the groundwater quality for irrigation usage. In addition, the overall groundwater quality was assessed using an entropy water quality index (EWQI), and its relationships with the physicochemical indices were discussed using the multiple linear regression models to explore the most important physicochemical indices affecting the groundwater quality. Finally, some measures for the prevention and treatment of the hydatidosis disease were proposed. The results show that the groundwater found beneath the study area is generally in good to excellent quality with low salinity and major ions. Groundwater in all constructed wells except only one is suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes with majority of the samples falling into HCO3-Ca·Mg type. The overall groundwater quality is mainly affected by COD, SO42−, and TH. Measures to reduce the incidence of hydatidosis such as cutting off the hydatidosis exposure pathway and improving the sanitation system are proposed.


Water pollution Health risk Groundwater quality Water quality index Multiple linear regression 



We are sincerely acknowledged to the financial support granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41602238 and 41761144059), the Research Funds for Young Stars in Science and Technology of Shaanxi Province (2016KJXX-29), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of CHD (300102299301), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation (161098), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580804, 2016M590911, 2016T090878 and 2017T100719), the Shaanxi Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015BSHTDZZ09 and 2016BSHTDZZ03), and the Ten Thousand Talents Program (W03070125).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of the Ministry of EducationChang’an UniversityXi’anChina

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