Advertisement

Finding High-Quality Groundwater Resources to Reduce the Hydatidosis Incidence in the Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, China: Analysis, Assessment, and Management

  • Dan Wang
  • Jianhua WuEmail author
  • Yuanhang Wang
  • Yujie Ji
Original Paper
  • 68 Downloads

Abstract

The prevalence of hydatidosis due to animal husbandry development poses significant health risks to people in the Shiqu County of Sichuan Province, China, where people depend mainly on surface water for domestic uses, which, however, is contaminated due to the development of the animal husbandry. Therefore, groundwater which is protected by the vadose zone and has better quality is now proposed to replace the contaminated surface water as a new source of water supply in this area. To find a high-quality groundwater resource, a detailed investigation and assessment was carried out in this study. The occurrence and distribution of the hydatidosis caused by the consumption of the contaminated surface water were analyzed. The World Health Organization (WHO) and national standards were applied to assess the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose, and SAR, RSC, %Na, PI were used to evaluate the groundwater quality for irrigation usage. In addition, the overall groundwater quality was assessed using an entropy water quality index (EWQI), and its relationships with the physicochemical indices were discussed using the multiple linear regression models to explore the most important physicochemical indices affecting the groundwater quality. Finally, some measures for the prevention and treatment of the hydatidosis disease were proposed. The results show that the groundwater found beneath the study area is generally in good to excellent quality with low salinity and major ions. Groundwater in all constructed wells except only one is suitable for domestic and irrigation purposes with majority of the samples falling into HCO3-Ca·Mg type. The overall groundwater quality is mainly affected by COD, SO42−, and TH. Measures to reduce the incidence of hydatidosis such as cutting off the hydatidosis exposure pathway and improving the sanitation system are proposed.

Keywords

Water pollution Health risk Groundwater quality Water quality index Multiple linear regression 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are sincerely acknowledged to the financial support granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41602238 and 41761144059), the Research Funds for Young Stars in Science and Technology of Shaanxi Province (2016KJXX-29), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of CHD (300102299301), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation (161098), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580804, 2016M590911, 2016T090878 and 2017T100719), the Shaanxi Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015BSHTDZZ09 and 2016BSHTDZZ03), and the Ten Thousand Talents Program (W03070125).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abdi J, Taherikalani M, Asadolahi K, Emaneini M (2013) Echinococcosis/hydatidosis in Ilam Province, western Iran. Iran J Parasitol 8(3):417–422Google Scholar
  2. Adamu M, Zaharin AA, Firuz RM, Hafizan J (2012) Temporal aspects of surface water quality variation using robust statistical tools. Sci World J 2012:294540.  https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/294540 Google Scholar
  3. Adimalla N, Li P (2018) Occurrence, health risks and geochemical mechanisms of fluoride and nitrate in groundwater of the rock-dominant semi-arid region, Telangana State, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1480353 Google Scholar
  4. Adimalla N, Wu J (2019) Groundwater quality and associated health risks in a semi-arid region of south India: implication to sustainable groundwater management. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1546550 Google Scholar
  5. Adimalla N, Li P, Qian H (2018) Evaluation of groundwater contamination for fluoride and nitrate in semi-arid region of Nirmal Province, South India: a special emphasis on human health risk assessment (HHRA). Human Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1460579 Google Scholar
  6. Altintas N (2003) Past to present: echinococcosis in Turkey. Acta Trop 85(2):105–112.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0001-706x(02)00213-9 Google Scholar
  7. Amiri V, Rezaei M, Sohrabi N (2014) Groundwater quality assessment using entropy weighted water quality index (ewqi) in Lenjanat, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 72(9):3479–3490.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3255-0 Google Scholar
  8. Andalib AZ, Berenji F, Fata A, Jarahi L (2015) Human hydatidosis/echinococosis in north eastern Iran from 2003–2012. Iran J Parasitol 10(4):658–662Google Scholar
  9. Basu S, Lokesh KS (2014) Application of multiple linear regression and manova to evaluate health impacts due to changing river water quality. Appl Math 5(5):799–807.  https://doi.org/10.4236/am.2014.55076 Google Scholar
  10. Dakkak A (2010) Echinococcosis/hydatidosis: a severe threat in Mediterranean countries. Vet Parasitol 174(1–2):2–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.08.009 Google Scholar
  11. Daud MK, Nafees M, Ali S, Rizwan M, Bajwa RA, Shakoor MB, Arshad MU, Chatha SAS, Deeba F, Murad W, Malook I, Zhu SJ (2017) Drinking water quality status and contamination in Pakistan. BioMed Res Int 2017:7908183.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7908183 Google Scholar
  12. Delgado C, Pacheco J, Cabrera A, Batllori E, Orellana R, Bautista F (2010) Quality of groundwater for irrigation in tropical karst environment: the case of Yucatán, Mexico. Agric Water Manage 97(10):1423–1433.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2010.04.006 Google Scholar
  13. Dudarev AA, Dorofeyev VM, Dushkina EV, Alloyarov PR, Chupakhin VS, Sladkova YN, Kolesnikova TA, Fridman KB, Nilsson LM, Evengard B (2013) Food and water security issues in russia iii: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011. Int J Circumpol Health 72(1):21856.  https://doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v72i0.21856 Google Scholar
  14. Eaton Frank M (1950) Significance of carbonates in irrigation waters. Soil Sci 69(2):123–134.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-195002000-00004 Google Scholar
  15. Falkenmark M (2005) Water usability degradation. Water Inter 30(2):136–146.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060508691854 Google Scholar
  16. Fordyce FM, Vrana K, Zhovinsky E, Povoroznuk V, Toth G, Hope BC, Iljinsky U, Baker J (2007) A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe. Environ Geochem Health 29:83–102.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-006-9076-7 Google Scholar
  17. He S, Wu J (2019) Relationships of groundwater quality and associated health risks with land use/land cover patterns: a case study in a loess area, northwest China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1570463 Google Scholar
  18. He S, Wu J (2019) Hydrogeochemical characteristics, groundwater quality and health risks from hexavalent chromium and nitrate in groundwater of Huanhe Formation in Wuqi County, northwest China. Expo Health 11(2):125–137.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0289-7 Google Scholar
  19. He X, Wu J, He S (2018) Hydrochemical characteristics and quality evaluation of groundwater in terms of health risks in Luohe aquifer in Wuqi County of the Chinese Loess Plateau, northwest China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1531693 Google Scholar
  20. He X, Wu J, Guo W (2019) Karst spring protection for the sustainable and healthy living: the examples of Niangziguan spring and Shuishentang spring in Shanxi, China. Expo Health 11(2):153–165.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-00295-4 Google Scholar
  21. Hu W, Chen Y, Huang B, Niedermann S (2014) Health risk assessment of heavy metals in soils and vegetables from a typical greenhouse vegetable production system in China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 20:1264–1280.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2013.831267 Google Scholar
  22. Jang CS (2012) Regional assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose. Environ Monit Assess 184(5):3063–3075.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-011-2171-y Google Scholar
  23. Jhariya DC, Kumar T, Dewangan R, Pal D, Dewangan PK (2017) Assessment of groundwater quality index for drinking purpose in the Durg district, Chhattisgarh using geographical information system (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. J Geol Soc India 89(4):453–459.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12594-017-0628-5 Google Scholar
  24. Kelly WP (1963) Use of saline irrigation water. Soil Sci 95(6):385–391.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-196306000-00003 Google Scholar
  25. Koklu R, Sengorur B, Topal B (2010) Water quality assessment using multivariate statistical methods-a case study: Melen river system (Turkey). Water Resour Manage 24(5):959–978.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-009-9481-7 Google Scholar
  26. Li P (2016) Groundwater quality in western China: challenges and paths forward for groundwater quality research in western China. Expo Health 8(3):305–310.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-016-0210-1 Google Scholar
  27. Li P, Wu J (2019a) Sustainable living with risks: meeting the challenges. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1584030 Google Scholar
  28. Li P, Wu J (2019b) Drinking water quality and public health. Expo Health 11(2):73–79.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-019-00299-8 Google Scholar
  29. Li P, Qian H, Wu J (2010) Groundwater quality assessment based on improved water quality index in Pengyang County, Ningxia Northwest China. E-J Chem 7(S1):S209–S216.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/451304 Google Scholar
  30. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2013) Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical evolution mechanisms in Pengyang County, China. Environ Earth Sci 69(7):2211–2225.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2049-5 Google Scholar
  31. Li P, Qian H, Wu J, Chen J, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2014) Occurrence and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride in shallow alluvial aquifer of Weihe River, China. Environ Earth Sci 71(7):3133–3145.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2691-6 Google Scholar
  32. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2016a) Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and the major influencing factors: a case study in and around Hua County, China. Arab J Geosci 9(1):15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-015-2059-1 Google Scholar
  33. Li P, Li X, Meng X, Li M, Zhang Y (2016b) Appraising groundwater quality and health risks from contamination in a semiarid region of northwest China. Expo Health 8(3):361–379.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-016-0205-y Google Scholar
  34. Li P, Qian H, Zhou W (2017) Finding harmony between the environment and humanity: an introduction to the thematic issue of the silk road. Environ Earth Sci 76(3):105.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-017-6428-9 Google Scholar
  35. Li P, He S, He X, Tian R (2018a) Seasonal hydrochemical characterization and groundwater quality delineation based on matter element extension analysis in a paper wastewater irrigation area, northwest China. Expo Health 10(4):241–258.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-17-0258-6 Google Scholar
  36. Li P, He S, Yang N, Xiang G (2018b) Groundwater quality assessment for domestic and agricultural purposes in Yan’an city, northwest China: implications to sustainable groundwater quality management on the Loess Plateau. Environ Earth Sci 77(23):775.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-2018-7968-3 Google Scholar
  37. Li P, He X, Guo W (2019a) Spatial groundwater quality and potential health risks due to nitrate ingestion through drinking water: a case study in Yan’an city on the loess plateau of northwest China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1553612 Google Scholar
  38. Li P, He X, Li Y, Xiang G (2019b) Occurrence and health implication of fluoride in groundwater of Loess Aquifer in the Chinese Loess Plateau: a case study of Tongchuan, Northwest China. Expo Health 11(2):95–107.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-018-0278-x Google Scholar
  39. Liu J (2016) Epidemic factors and prevention analysis of hydatidosis. Contemporary Anim Husbandry 5:90–91 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  40. Liu M, Zhou B, Wang Z (2009) Study on catalytic ozonation/BAC process for advanced drinking water treatment. International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering. IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICBBE.2009.5163464
  41. Mari L, Casagrandi R, Rinaldo A, Gatto M (2018) Epidemicity thresholds for water-borne and water-related diseases. J Theor Biol 447:126–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.03.024 Google Scholar
  42. Ministry of Health of the P.R. China, Standardization Administration of the P.R. China (2006) Standards for drinking water quality (GB5749–2006). China Standard Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  43. Noor HB, Hamzah HA, Falih HK, Elaffsaffa ADH (2018) Detection of water-borne parasites in drinking water of Baghdad. Iraq. Afr J Infectious Dis 12(2):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.21010/ajid.v12i2.1 Google Scholar
  44. Odiyo JO, Makungo R (2018) Chemical and microbial quality of groundwater in siloam village, implications to human health and sources of contamination. Int J Env Res Pub He 15(2):317.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020317 Google Scholar
  45. Qiu C (2006) Rehabilitating and rebuilding for alpine meadow ecosystem in Northwest Sichuan Province. Master dissertation of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Soil Sci 64(3):290.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-194711000-00013 Google Scholar
  47. Sangaran A, John L (2013) Incidence and organ wise involvement of hydatidosis in buffaloes. Buffalo Bull 32(1):1009–1010.  https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2013.e85 Google Scholar
  48. Seimenis A (2003) Overview of the epidemiological situation on echinococcosis in the Mediterranean region. Acta Trop 85(2):191–195.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-706X(02)00272-3 Google Scholar
  49. Sherif M (2010) Water availability and quality in the Gulf cooperation council countries: implications for public health. Asia Pac J Public Health 22(3):40S–47S.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1010539510373037 Google Scholar
  50. Su H, Kang W, Xu Y, Wang J (2017) Assessment of groundwater quality and health risk in the oil and gas field of Dingbian County, northwest China. Expo Health 9(4):227–242.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-016-0234-6 Google Scholar
  51. Su H, Kang W, Xu Y, Wang J (2018) Assessing groundwater quality and health risks of nitrogen pollution in the Shenfu mining area of Shaanxi Province, northwest China. Expo Health 10(2):77–97.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-017-0247-9 Google Scholar
  52. Su F, Wu J, He S (2019) Set pair analysis-Markov chain model for groundwater quality assessment and prediction: a case study of Xi’an City, China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1568860 Google Scholar
  53. Tian R, Wu J (2019) Groundwater quality appraisal by improved set pair analysis with game theory weightage and health risk estimation of contaminants for Xuecha drinking water source in a loess area in Northwest China. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1573035 Google Scholar
  54. Varis O (2014) Resources: curb vast water use in central Asia. Nature 514(7520):27.  https://doi.org/10.1038/514027a Google Scholar
  55. Vasanthavigar M, Srinivasamoorthy K, Vijayaragavan K, Ganthi RR, Chidambaram S, Anandhan P, Manivannan R, Vasudevan S (2010) Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamilnadu, India. Environ Monit Assess 171(1–4):595–609.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1302-1 Google Scholar
  56. Venkatramanan S, Chung SY, Selvam S, Lee SY, Elzain HE (2017) Factors controlling groundwater quality in the Yeonjegu district of Busan city, Korea, using the hydrogeochemical processes and fuzzy GIS. Environ Sci Pollut R 24(30):23679–23693.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9990-5 Google Scholar
  57. WHO (2017) Guidelines for drinking water quality: fourth edition incorporating the first addendum. World Health Organization, Geneva, p 631Google Scholar
  58. Wu J, Sun Z (2016) Evaluation of shallow groundwater contamination and associated human health risk in an alluvial plain impacted by agricultural and industrial activities, mid-west China. Expo Health 8(3):311–329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-015-0170-x Google Scholar
  59. Wu J, Li P, Qian H (2011) Groundwater quality in Jingyuan County, a semi-humid area in northwest China. E-J Chem 8(2):787–793.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/163695 Google Scholar
  60. Wu J, Li P, Qian H (2015) Hydrochemical characterization of drinking groundwater with special reference to fluoride in an arid area of China and the control of aquifer leakage on its concentrations. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8575–8588.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4018-2 Google Scholar
  61. Wu J, Li P, Wang D, Ren X, Wei M (2019) Statistical and multivariate statistical techniques to trace the sources and affecting factors of groundwater pollution in a rapidly growing city on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1594156 Google Scholar
  62. Yao Y, Zheng C, Andrews C, He X, Zhang A, Liu J (2019) Integration of groundwater into china's south-north water transfer strategy. Sci Total Environ 658:550–557.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.185 Google Scholar
  63. Yu W, Wang Q, Liao S, Zhong B, Liu L, Huang Y, He W, Xie F, Zou B, Xu K, Lu Z, Yang C (2018) Echinococcosis prevalence in humans in Shiqu County of Sichuan in 2017. J Prev Med Information 34(5):7–11 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  64. Yuce G, Alptekin C (2013) In situ and laboratory treatment tests for lowering of excess manganese and iron in drinking water sourced from river–groundwater interaction. Environ Earth Sci 70(6):2827–2837.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2343-x Google Scholar
  65. Zhang W (2013) Spatio-temporal simulation of land desertification in Three Rivers Source Area: a case of Shiqu County, Sichuan Province. Master Dissertation of Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  66. Zhang Y, Wu J, Xu B (2018) Human health risk assessment of groundwater nitrogen pollution in Jinghui canal irrigation area of the loess region, northwest China. Environ Earth Sci 77(7):273.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-018-7456-9 Google Scholar
  67. Zhao Y (2008) Epidemiological studies of hydtidosis in the east parts of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Doctoral dissertation of Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of the Ministry of EducationChang’an UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations