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Exposure and Health

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 51–60 | Cite as

Mutagenicity and Phthalate Level of Bottled Water Under Different Storage Conditions

  • Katalin Szendi
  • Zoltán GyöngyiEmail author
  • Zsuzsanna Kontár
  • Gellért Gerencsér
  • Károly Berényi
  • Adrienn Hanzel
  • Jenő Fekete
  • András Kovács
  • Csaba Varga
Original Paper

Abstract

Mutagenicity and phthalate level of bottled water are still under-investigated. Five brands of still or carbonated mineral water bottled in PET, glass, or polycarbonate bottles were kept in sunlight or darkness at ambient temperatures or 37 °C for 0, 1, or 4 months. The ultraviolet (UV)-filtering capacity of bottles was also assessed. Concentrated organic fractions were analysed using the Ames test. Diisobutylphthalate (DIBP), diethylhexylphtalate (DEHP), and dibutylphthalate (DBP) were quantified by gas chromatography. Mean values of UVA and UVB reduction by bottle walls were 17 and 70% in PET, 16 and 70% in glass, and 66 and 86% in polycarbonate, respectively. Salmonella TA100 strain proved to be more sensitive than TA98 in the Ames test, and according to the test, we isolated direct-acting mutagens. The most mutagenic samples were identified after 1 month, stored at 37 °C and in sunlight. Water stored in bisphenol A-free polycarbonate was non-mutagenic. Phthalate concentrations were low initially and then ranged between <0.026–0.16 μg/L (DIBP), <0.29–11.72 μg/L (DEHP), and <0.005–0.2 μg/L (DBP); levels were the highest also after 1 month of storage. The highest mutagenicity and phthalate levels were detected similarly after 1 month of storage in mineral water, but mainly in different samples, and we found no significant correlation between them. Levels of phthalates were independent of bottle material. To sum up, natural organics in water can be important sources of mutagenic compound and phthalate formation. However, further analytical measurements should be performed to identify and follow-up the presence of genotoxic compounds in bottled mineral waters.

Keywords

Bottled water PET Glass Phthalate Mutagenic 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express their gratitude to all the manufacturers who provided mineral water samples free of charge. The Faculty of Medicine, University of Pécs, Hungary (34039 ÁOK-Post-Doc 2013 and PTE ÁOK-KA-2013/34039) financially supported this work. The present scientific contribution is dedicated to the 650th anniversary of the foundation of the University of Pécs, Hungary.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12403_2017_246_MOESM1_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 21 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katalin Szendi
    • 1
  • Zoltán Gyöngyi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zsuzsanna Kontár
    • 1
  • Gellért Gerencsér
    • 1
  • Károly Berényi
    • 1
  • Adrienn Hanzel
    • 1
  • Jenő Fekete
    • 2
  • András Kovács
    • 3
  • Csaba Varga
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Public Health MedicineMedical School, University of PécsPécsHungary
  2. 2.Department of Inorganic and Analytical ChemistryBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary
  3. 3.Faculty of Chemical Technology and BiotechnologyBudapest University of Technology and EconomicsBudapestHungary

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