Exposure and Health

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 27–39 | Cite as

Transfer Factors and Effective Dose Evaluation Due to Natural Radioactivity in Staple Food Grains from the Vicinity of Proposed Nuclear Power Plant

  • Poonam Yadav
  • V. K. GargEmail author
  • Balvinder Singh
  • Vandana Pulhani
  • Suman Mor
Original Paper


This study focused on quantification of radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in most staple food grain i.e. wheat of the study area using gamma spectrometry for two years. 40K, 226Ra and 232Th activities were detectable in most of the wheat grain samples and ranged 111.3–245.7, <0.04–0.37 and <0.015–0.11 Bq kg−1 respectively. Effective dose due to the consumption of radionuclides via wheat grains was calculated on its estimated annual intake by the local populace. Also to evaluate transfer factors of radionuclide’s, corresponding fields’ soils were collected and assessed for their radioactivity content. Measured average radioactivity levels in soils from the site were in order: 40K (544.7 ± 14.6 Bq kg−1) > 226Ra (41 ± 1.6 Bq kg−1) > 232Th (32.3 ± 1.2 Bq kg−1) and comparable to the corresponding levels obtained worldwide. The geometric mean transfer factors of studied NORMs in wheat grains were in order: 40K (0.371 ± 0.07) > 226Ra (0.003 ± 0.002) > 232Th (0.001 ± 0.001). Significant positive dependencies of transfer factors of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in wheat grains were observed with total organic carbon content of soil. Estimated annual effective doses from ingestion of the wheat were 1.37E−01 mSv year−1 for 40K, 4.14E−03 mSv year−1 for Ra226 and 1.10E−03 mSv year−1 for 232Th, well under the permissible cumulative global average.


Annual effective dose Natural radionuclides Transfer Factor HPGe detector Wheat 



Authors are thankful to Board of Research in Nuclear Science, Department of Atomic Energy, (DAE-BRNS), Mumbai, India for providing the financial assistance to conduct this research work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Poonam Yadav
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. K. Garg
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Balvinder Singh
    • 1
  • Vandana Pulhani
    • 4
  • Suman Mor
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Radio-ecologyGuru Jambheshwar University of Science and TechnologyHisarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environment StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Centre for Environmental Sciences and TechnologyCentral University of PunjabBathindaIndia
  4. 4.Health Physics DivisionBhabha Atomic Research CentreMumbaiIndia

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