Exposure and Health

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 43–60 | Cite as

Hydrochemical Characteristics and Quality Assessment of Groundwater in Patuakhali District, Southern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

  • S. M. Didar-Ul IslamEmail author
  • Ratan Kumar Majumder
  • Mohammed Jamal Uddin
  • Md. Ibrahim Khalil
  • Md. Ferdous Alam
Original Paper


Groundwater quality is important as it is the main factor determining its suitability for drinking, domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in coastal aquifers of Patuakhali district have been investigated based on different indices for assessing its utility and to evaluate the factors influencing groundwater quality. A total of 18 groundwater samples were collected from tube wells having depth between 244 and 365 m and were analyzed for physicochemical parameters, including temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity; major ion concentrations such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl, SO4 2−, NO3 , HCO3 , Br; and trace element concentrations such as As, Pb, Li, Rb, Ba, Be, Co, Mn, Ti, Cd, and Se. The results revealed that the groundwater is slightly alkaline and brackish in nature. The trends of dominant cations and anions are Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3  > Cl > SO4 2− > NO3  > Br, respectively and Na–Cl–HCO3 is the dominant groundwater type. Ion exchange and seawater plays a significant role in the geochemistry of the groundwater and signatures of Br/Cl ratio showed evidence of mixing of seawater in the southern part of study area. The samples analyzed were also classified with different indices, diagram, and permissible limit i.e., EC, TDS, chloride content, soluble sodium percentage or Na %, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, magnesium adsorption ratio, Kelley’s ratio, Wilcox diagram, USSL diagram and results showed that groundwater is not suitable for drinking and irrigation purpose. However, except for Se and As, the trace metals concentration are within permissible limit.


Water quality Aquifer Seawater intrusion Coastal region Bangladesh 



The second author is grateful to the Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh for the grant during 2013–2014. The authors are also grateful to Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB) and Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), and Nuclear Minerals Unit (NMU) team, BAEC for provided laboratory and instrumental facility to conduct this work.


  1. Abollino A, Aceto M, Buoso S, Gasparon M, Green WJ, Malandrino M (2004) Distribution of major, minor and trace elements in lake environments of Antarctica. Antarct Sci 16(3):277–291. doi: 10.1017/S0954102004002111 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmed AU (2006) Bangladesh climate change impacts and vulnerability. Comprehensive Disaster Management Programme (CDMP), Government of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  3. Alabdula’aly AI, Abdullah I, Zarah A, Khan MA (2011) Assessment of trace metals in groundwater sources used for drinking purposes in Riyadh Region. Int J Water Resour Arid Environ 1(1):05–09Google Scholar
  4. Alam MK, Hassan AKMS, Khan MR and Whitney JW (1990) Geological map of Bangladesh. Geological Survey of Bangladesh (GSB), DhakaGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison MA, Goodbred SL Jr, Kuehl SA, Khan SR (2003) Stratigraphic evolution of the late holocene Ganges–Brahmaputra lower delta plain. Sediment Geol 155:317–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alrajhi A, Beecham S, Bolan NS, Hassanli A (2015) Evaluation of soil chemical properties irrigated with recycled wastewater under partial root-zone drying irrigation for sustainable tomato production. Agric Water Manag 161:127–135. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2015.07.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreasen DC, Fleck WB (1997) Use of bromide: chloride ratios to differentiate potential sources of chloride in a shallow, unconfined aquifer affected by brackish-water intrusion. Hydrogeol J 5:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Appelo CAJ, Postma D (1999) Chemical analysis of groundwater, geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. Balkema, RotterdamGoogle Scholar
  9. Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1985) Water quality for agriculture, FAO irrigation and drainage Paper 29, Rev. I. UN Food and Agriculture Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
  10. Ayuba R, Omonona OV, Onwuka OS (2013) Assessment of groundwater quality of Lokoja basement area, North-Central Nigeria. J Geol Soc India 82:413–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (2011). Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Govt. of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  12. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) (2011) Patuakhali district statistics, Govt. of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  13. Bangladesh Meteorological Department (BMD) (2014). Government of the Peoples Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  14. Basar A (2012) Water security in coastal region of Bangladesh. Bangladesh J Sociol 9(2):31–39Google Scholar
  15. BGS, DPHE (2001) Arsenic contamination of groundwater in Bangladesh. Final report, BGS Tech. Report WC/00/19:51Google Scholar
  16. Bhuiyan MAH, Ganyaglo S, Suzuki S (2014) Reconnaissance on the suitability of the available water resources for irrigation in Thakurgaon district of northwestern Bangladesh. Appl Water Sci. doi: 10.1007/s13201-014-0184-8
  17. Bolter E, Turekian K, Schutz D (1964) The distribution of rubidium, cesium and barium in the oceans. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 28(9):1459. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(64)90161-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Central Ground Water (CGW) Board (2009) Report: South eastern coastal region, Chennai, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Chadha DK (1999) A proposed new diagram for geochemical classification of natural waters and interpretation of chemical data. Hydrol J 7(5):431–439Google Scholar
  20. Chandrasekar N, Selvakumar S, Srinivas Y, John Wilson JS, Simon Peter T, Magesh NS (2013) Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater quality along the coastal aquifers of southern Tamil Nadu. India. J Environ Earth Sci 71(11):4739–4750. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2864-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Collins AG (1975) Geochemistry of oil field brines. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. Desjardins R (1988) Le traitement des eaux. Edition II revue. Edition de l’Ecole Polytechnique de Montre´al, Montre´alGoogle Scholar
  23. DPHE (2006) Final report on development of deep aquifer database and preliminary deep aquifer map (First Phase), Ground water circle, Department of Public Health Engineering, Local Government Division, Ministry of LGRD and Co-operatives, Government of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  24. Eaton EM (1950) Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci 69:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ECR (Environmental Conservation Rules) (1997) Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Ministry of Environment and Forest, Department of Environment, Dhaka, pp 212–214Google Scholar
  26. FAO (1985) Water quality for agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization. Accessed 21 Dec 2013
  27. Fetter CW (2001) Applied hydrogeology, 4th edn. Prentice Hall Inc, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  28. Ganje TJ, Rains DW (1982). In Page AC, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds), Methods of soil analysis, part 2: chemical and microbiological properties-Agronomy monograph no. 9, 2nd ed. ASA-SSSA, Madison, pp 385–402Google Scholar
  29. Ghabayen MS, Mac McKee, Mariush Kemblowski (2006) Ionic and isotopic ratios for identification of salinity sources and missing data in the Gaza aquifer. J Hydrol 318:360–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ghafur A, Kamal M, Dhaly MR, Khatun S (1999) Socio-economic and environmental impact of shrimp culture in south-western Bangladesh: an integrated approach. Nijera Kori and IDPAA at Proshika, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  31. Hagler M (1997) Shrimp: the devastating delicacy. Green Peace Report, GreenpeaceGoogle Scholar
  32. Haque SA (2006) Salinity problems and crop production in coastal regions of Bangladesh. Pak J Bot 38(5):1359–1365Google Scholar
  33. Hem JD (1991) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural waters, 3rd edn. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur Book 2254 Google Scholar
  34. Hoque M, Hasan MK, Ravenscroft P (2003) Investigation of groundwater salinity and gas problems in southeast Bangladesh. In: Rahman AA, Ravenscroft P (eds) Groundwater resources and development in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, University Press Ltd, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  35. Hunt LE, Howard AG (1994) Arsenic speciation and distribution in the Carnon Estuary following the acute discharge of contaminated water from a disused mine. Mar Pollut Bull 28(1):33–38. doi: 10.1016/0025-326X(94)90183-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huq S (1999) Vulnerability and adaptation to climate change for Bangladesh. Kluwer Academic Publishers, NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huq SMI, Naidu R (2002) Arsenic in groundwater of Bangladesh: Contamination in the food chain. Arsenic Contamination in Bangladesh, ITN Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, pp 69–72Google Scholar
  38. Islam SMD, Bhuiyan MAH (2016) Impact scenarios of shrimp farming in coastal region of Bangladesh: an approach of an ecological model for sustainable management. Aquacult Int 24(2):1–28. doi: 10.1007/s10499-016-9978-z Google Scholar
  39. Islam SMD, Uddin MJ (2015) Impacts, vulnerability and coping with cyclone hazard in coastal region of Bangladesh: a case study on Kalapara upazila of Patuakhali district. Jahangirnagar Univ Environ Bull 4:1–30Google Scholar
  40. Kacmaz H, Nakoman ME (2010) Hydrochemical characteristics of shallow groundwater aquifer containing Uranyl phosphate minerals in the Koprubasi (Manisa) area, Turkey. Environ Earth Sci 59:449–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kapaj S, Peterson H, Liber K, Bhattacharya P (2006) Human health effects from chronic and arsenic poisoning—a review. J Environ Sci Health Part A 41:2399–2428. doi: 10.1080/10934520600873571 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Karanth KR (1997) Groundwater assessment, development and management. Tata McGraw-Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  43. Karmegam U, Chidambaram S, Sasidhar P, Manivannan R, Manikandan S, Anandhan P (2010) Geochemical characterization of groundwaters of shallow coastal aquifer in and around Kalpakkam, South India. Res J Environ Earth Sci 2(4):170–177Google Scholar
  44. Karro E, Marandi A, Vaikm R (2004) The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopl Peninsula, northern Estonia. Hydrogeol J 12:424–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kelley WP (1963) Use of saline irrigation water. Soil Sci 95:355–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Khalil MI, Rasul G, Majumder RK, Kabir MZ, Deeba F, Islam F, Karmaker S, Rumi KMJU, Siddique R. 2014. Geo-electrical soundings and analysis to investigate groundwater aquifers at Khulna City, coastal area of Bangladesh. Arab J Geosci. doi  10.1007/s12517-014-1636-z
  47. Khalil MI, Majumder RK, Islam SMD, Uddin MJ 2016. Geophysical investigation for groundwater exploration and quality assessment in coastal area of Kalapara, Patuakhali, south part of Bangladesh. International Water Conference, March 13–16, 2016, Sultan Quabbos University, OmanGoogle Scholar
  48. Khan A, Mojumder SK, Kovats S, Vineis P (2008) Saline contamination of drinking water in Bangladesh. Lancet 371:385. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60197-X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khan MMA, Umar R, Lateh H (2010) Study of trace elements in groundwater of Western Uttar Pradesh, India. Sci Res Essays 5(20):3175–3182Google Scholar
  50. Khan AE, Ireson A, Kovats S, Mojumder SK, Khusru A, Rahman A, Vineis P (2011) Drinking water salinity and maternal health in coastal Bangladesh: implications of climate change. Environ Health Perspect 119(9):1328–1332. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002804 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim RH, Kim JH, Ryu JS, Chang HW (2006) Salinization properties of a shallow groundwater in a coastal reclaimed area, Yeonggwang, Korea. Environ Geol 49:1180–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krebs Robert E (2006) The history and use of our earth’s chemical elements: a reference guide. Greenwood Press, Westport. ISBN 0-313-33438-2Google Scholar
  53. Kumar SK, Logeshkumaran A, Magesh NS, Godson PS, Chandrasekar N (2015) Hydro-geochemistry and application of water quality index (WQI) for groundwater quality assessment, Anna Nagar, part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India. Appl Water Sci 5:335–343. doi: 10.1007/s13201-014-0196-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Leung CM, Jiao JJ (2006) Heavy metal and trace element distributions in groundwater in natural slopes and highly urbanized spaces in mid-levels area, Hong Kong. Water Res 40:753–767. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.12.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Majumder RK (2008) Groundwater flow system studies in Bengal Delta, Bangladesh revealed by environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry. In: Proceedings of 36th IAH Congress, October 2008, Toyama, JapanGoogle Scholar
  56. Metcafe, Eddy (2000) Integrated aquifer management plan: final report. Gaza Coastal Aquifer Management Program, USAID Contract No. 294-C-00-99-00038-00Google Scholar
  57. Mitro S, Khatun R, Baten MA (2014) Socio-economic and environmental impacts of shrimp culture in some selected areas of Bagerhat District. Environ Sci Nat Resour 7(1):265–269Google Scholar
  58. Mondal NC, Singh VS, Puranik SC, Singh VP (2010) Trace element concentration in groundwater of Pesarlanka Island, Krishna Delta, India. Environ Monit Assess 163:215–227. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-0828-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. MoWR (2005) Coastal Zone Policy (CZPo), Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR), Government of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  60. Mustari S, Karim AHMZ (2014) Impact of salinity on the socio-environmental life of coastal people of Bangladesh. Asian J Soc Sci Humanit 3(1):12–18Google Scholar
  61. Nagaraju A, Sunil Kumar K, Thejaswi A (2014) Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India. Appl Water Sci 4:385–396. doi: 10.1007/s13201-014-0154-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nickson R, McArthur JM, Shrestha B, Kyaw-Myint TO, Lowry D (2005) Arsenic and other drinking water quality issues, Muzaffargarh district, Pakistan. Appl Geochem 20:55–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Padmalal D, Maya K, Narendra Babu K, Baiju RS, Babura B (2012) Hydro chemical characterization and water quality assessment of the coastal springs of southern Kerala, India. J Appl Geochem 14(4):466–481Google Scholar
  64. Piper AM (1953) A graphic procedure I the geo-chemical interpretation of water analysis, USGS Groundwater Note no, 12Google Scholar
  65. Prasanna MV, Chidambaram S, Hameed AS, Srinivasamoorthy K (2009) Study of evaluation of groundwater in Gadilam basin using hydrogeochemical and isotope data. Environ Monit Assess. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1092-5 Google Scholar
  66. Prasanna MV, Chidambaram S, Gireesh TV, Jabir Ali TV (2011) A study on hydrochemical characteristics of surface and subsurface water in and around Perumal Lake, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, South India. Environ Earth Sci 64(5):1419–1431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ragunath HM (1987) Groundwater. Wiley, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  68. Rahman ATMT, Majumder RK, Rahman SH, Halim MA (2011) Sources of deep groundwater salinity in the southwestern zone of Bangladesh. Environ Earth Sci 63:363–373. doi: 10.1007/s12665-010-0707-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Raju NJ, Shukla UK, Ram P (2011) Hydrogeochemistry for the assessment of groundwater quality in Varanasi: a fast-urbanizing center in Uttar Pradesh, India. Environ Monit Assess 173:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rao NS, Subrahmanyam A, Kumar SR, Srinivasulu N, Rao GB, Rao PS, Reddy GV (2012) Geochemistry and quality of groundwater of Gummanampadu sub-basin, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ Earth Sci 67(5):1451–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Richards LA (1954) Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. U.S. Department of Agricultural Handbook, vol 60. Department of Agricultural, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  72. Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) (2012) “Visual Elements: Group 2—The Alkaline Earth Metals”. Visual Elements. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 13 January 2012Google Scholar
  73. Sajil Kumar PJ, Elango L, James EJ (2013) Assessment of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in the coastal area of South Chennai. Arab J Geosci, India. doi: 10.1007/s12517-013-0940-3 Google Scholar
  74. Sefie A, Aris AZ, Shamsuddin MKN, Tawnie I, Suratman S, Idris AN, Saadudin SB, Ahmed WKW (2015) Hydrogeochemistry of groundwater from different aquifer in Lower Kelantan Basin, Kelantan, Malaysia. In: International Conference on Environmental Forensics 2015. Procedia Environmental Sciences, vol 30, pp 151–156Google Scholar
  75. Selvam S, Manimaran G, Sivasubramanian P (2013) Hydrochemical characteristics and GIS-based assessment of groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of Tuticorin corporation, Tamil Nadu, India. Appl Water Sci 3:145–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shammi M, Karmakar B, Rahman MM, Islam MS, Rahman R, Uddin MK (2016) Assessment of salinity hazard of irrigation water quality in monsoon season of Batiaghata Upazila, Khulna District, Bangladesh and adaptation strategies. Pollution 2(2):183–197Google Scholar
  77. Sharbari A, Rahman MM, Faisal MA (2012) Reducing cyclone impacts in the coastal areas of Bangladesh: a case study of Kalapara upazila. J Bangladesh Inst Plan 5:185–197Google Scholar
  78. Sikdar PK, Sarkar SS, Palchoudhury S (2001) Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the quaternary aquifer of Calcutta and Howrah, India. J Asian Earth Sci 19:579–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Simsek C, Gunduz O (2007) IWQ index: a GIS-integrated technique to assess irrigation water quality. Environ Monit Assess 128(1–3):277–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singh AK, Mondal GC, Kumaar S, Sinngh TB, Sinha A (2008) Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India. Environ Geol 54:745–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sivasubramanian P, Balasubramanian N, Soundranayagam JP, Chandrasekar N (2013) Hydrochemical characteristics of coastal aquifers of Kadaladi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamilnadu, India. Appl Water Sci 3:603–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Srinivas Y, Aghil TB, Oliver DH, Nithya Nair C, Chandrasekar N (2015) Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of groundwater along the Manavalakurichi coast. Appl Water Sci, Tamil Nadu. doi: 10.1007/s13201-015-0325-8 Google Scholar
  83. Srinivasamoorthy K, Chidambaram S, Anandhan P, Vasudevan S (2005) Application of statistical analysis of the hydrogeochemical study of groundwater in hard rock terrain, Salem District, Tamilnadu. J Geochem 20:181–190Google Scholar
  84. Stuyfzand PJ (1989) Nonpoint sources of trace elements in potable groundwaters in the Netherlands. In: Proceedings 18th TWSA Water Workings. Testing and Research Institute KlWAGoogle Scholar
  85. Stuyfzand PJ (1999) Patterns in groundwater chemistry resulting from groundwater flow. Hydrogeol J 7(1):15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sundaray SK, Nayak BB, Bhatta D (2009) Environmental studies on river water quality with reference to suitability for agricultural purposes: Mahanadi river estuarine system, India—a case study. Environ Monit Assess 155:227–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Thilagavathi R, Chidambaram S, Prasanna MV, Singaraja C (2012) A study on groundwater geochemistry and water quality in layered aquifers system of Pondicherry region, southeast India. Appl Water Sci 2:253–269. doi: 10.1007/s13201-012-0045-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tijani J (1994) Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria. Environ Geol 24:194–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Todd DK (1980) Groundwater hydrology. Wiley, New York, pp 10–138Google Scholar
  90. Toth J (1999) Groundwater as a geologic agent: an overview of the causes, processes and manifestations. Hydrogeol J 7:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. UNDP (1982) The Hydrogeological conditions of Bangladesh. Technical Report DP/UN/BGD-74-009/1Google Scholar
  92. Vandenbohede A, Courtens C, William de Breuck L (2010) Fresh-salt water distribution in the central belgian coastal plain: an update. Geol Belg 11(3):163–172Google Scholar
  93. Vasanthavigar M, Srinivasamoorthy K, Vijayaravan K, Rajiv-Ganthi R, Chidambaram S, Anandhan P, Manivannan R, Vasudevan S (2010) Application of water quality index for groundwater quality assessment: Thirumanimuttar sub-basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Environ Monit Assess 171(1–4):595–609. doi: 10.1007/s10661-009-1302-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Vengosh A, Heumann KG, Juraski S, Kasher R (1994) Boron isotope application for tracing sources of contamination in groundwater. Environ Sci Technol 28(11):1968–1974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vineis P, Chan Q, Khan A (2011) Climate change impacts on water salinity and health. J Epidemiol Global Health 1:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Walton WC (1970) Groundwater resources evaluation. McGraw HillBook Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Watson L (1988). The Water Planet. The properties of sea water, Chapter-4, pp 87-127
  98. WHO (2011) WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality, 4th edn. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  99. Wilcox LV (1955) Classification and use of irrigation water. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Circular No. 969, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  100. Woobaidullah ASM, Hasan MA, Reza MH, Noor A, Amin MK (2006) Ground water potentiality-a review of the hydrogeological data available in the coastal belt of Khulna and Satkhira districts. Dhaka Univ J Sci 42:229–233Google Scholar
  101. World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) Guidelines for drinking water quality, Geneva. 1&2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. M. Didar-Ul Islam
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ratan Kumar Majumder
    • 2
  • Mohammed Jamal Uddin
    • 1
  • Md. Ibrahim Khalil
    • 2
  • Md. Ferdous Alam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesJahangirnagar UniversityDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Nuclear Minerals Unit (NMU)Atomic Energy Research EstablishmentDhakaBangladesh
  3. 3.Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (INST)Atomic Energy Research EstablishmentDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations