Advertisement

Exposure and Health

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 331–348 | Cite as

Hydrogeochemical Characterization of Groundwater in and Around a Wastewater Irrigated Forest in the Southeastern Edge of the Tengger Desert, Northwest China

  • Peiyue LiEmail author
  • Jianhua Wu
  • Hui Qian
  • Yuting Zhang
  • Nuan Yang
  • Lijun Jing
  • Peiyuan Yu
Original Paper

Abstract

Groundwater is an essential part of water resources for human survival and economic development in arid regions over the world. Human activities and environmental change have imposed significant impacts on groundwater environment. To investigate the hydrogeochemical characteristics and evolution of groundwater in and around a desert region impacted by wastewater irrigation, 84 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for 18 indices. Statistical and graphical approaches were applied to delineate the general hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater and the major factors influencing its evolution. Stable isotopes of 2H and 18O were applied to identify groundwater evaporation process. Hydrogeochemical modeling was also adopted to quantify the major reactions occurring in the groundwater system. The results reveal that the abundance of cations is Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ for groundwater in the entire study area, while the abundance of anions for groundwater in the desert region is HCO3  > Cl > SO4 2−, and that for groundwater in the alluvial plain is HCO3  > SO4 2− > Cl. Groundwater chemistry in the study area is mainly of rock dominance, and dissolution/precipitation of minerals and cation exchange are major natural factors governing the formation of groundwater chemistry. However, stable isotopes and the occurrence of nitrate show that shallow groundwater evaporation and human activities also have some impacts on groundwater quality. Hydrochemical type transits from Ca–Cl to HCO3·SO4–Ca type, and then to HCO3·SO4–Ca·Mg type along the flow path. The transition is influenced by multiple factors with water–rock interactions the predominant one. The water–rock interactions for the upper and lower sections of the flow path, indicated by hydrogeochemcial modeling, are different due to different geologic and hydrogeologic conditions.

Keywords

Groundwater pollution Water quality Paper wastewater Hydrogeochemical modeling Tengger Desert 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the financial supports granted by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41502234), the Foundation of Outstanding Young Scholar of Chang’an University (310829153509), the General Financial Grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2015M580804), the Special Financial Grant from the Shaanxi Postdoctoral Science Foundation, the Special Fund for Basic Scientific Research of Central Colleges (310829151072), and the Innovation Training Program for Undergraduate Students of Chang’an University (201510710072). Jing Jin, Hongwei Liu, Rui Liu, Ming Xu, Yufei Chen, Chang Xu, Wenjuan Xi, Yulong Zhang, Jie Chen, Hui Tang, and Hui Jin are sincerely acknowledged for their assistance in field investigation and data analysis. The anonymous reviewers and editor are gratefully acknowledged for their useful comments regarding the original version of this paper.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Ahmed MA, Abdel Samie SG, Badawy HA (2013) Factors controlling mechanisms of groundwater salinization and hydrogeochemical processes in the Quaternary aquifer of the Eastern Nile Delta, Egypt. Environ Earth Sci 68(2):369–394. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-1744-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambast SK, Tyagi NK, Raul SK (2006) Management of declining groundwater in the Trans Indo-Gangetic Plain (India): some options. Agric Water Manag 82:279–296. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2005.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayotte JD, Belaval M, Olson SA, Burow KR, Flanagan SM, Hinkle SR, Lindsey BD (2015) Factors affecting temporal variability of arsenic in groundwater used for drinking water supply in the United States. Sci Total Environ 505:1370–1379. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.057 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bouzourra H, Bouhlila R, Elango L, Slama F, Ouslati N (2015) Characterization of mechanisms and processes of groundwater salinization in irrigated coastal area using statistics, GIS, and hydrogeochemical investigations. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:2643–2660. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3428-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brindha K, Neena Vaman KV, Srinivasan K, Sathis Babu M, Elango L (2014) Identification of surface water–groundwater interaction by hydrogeochemical indicators and assessing its suitability for drinking and irrigational purposes in Chennai, Southern India. Appl Water Sci 4:159–174. doi: 10.1007/s13201-013-0138-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Candela L, Fabregat S, Josa A, Suriol J, Vigués N, Mas J (2007) Assessment of soil and groundwater impacts by treated urban wastewater reuse. A case study: application in a golf course (Girona, Spain). Sci Total Environ 374:26–35. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.12.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chebotarev II (1955) Metamorphism of natural waters in the crust of weathering-1. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 8(1–2):22–48. doi: 10.1016/0016-7037(55)90015-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen J, Taniguchi M, Liu G, Miyaoka K, Onodera S, Tokunaga T, Fukushima Y (2007) Nitrate pollution of groundwater in the Yellow River delta, China. Hydrogeol J 15:1605–1614. doi: 10.1007/s10040-007-0196-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christou A, Eliadou E, Michael C, Hapeshi E, Fatta-Kassinos D (2014) Assessment of long-term wastewater irrigation impacts on the soil geochemical properties and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals to the agricultural products. Environ Monit Assess 186:4857–4870. doi: 10.1007/s10661-014-3743-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Currell M, Cartwright I, Raveggi M, Han DM (2011) Controls on elevated fluoride and arsenic concentrations in groundwater from the Yuncheng Basin, China. Appl Geochem 26:540–552. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.01.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Durov SA (1948) Classification of natural waters and graphic presentation of their composition. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 59(1):87–90Google Scholar
  12. El-Naqa A, Al-Shayeb A (2009) Groundwater protection and management strategy in Jordan. Water Resour Manage 23:2379–2394. doi: 10.1007/s11269-008-9386-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Esmaeili A, Moore F, Keshavarzi B (2014) Nitrate contamination in irrigation groundwater, Isfahan, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 72:2511–2522. doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3159-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fang J-J, Zhou A-G, Ma C-M, Liu C-F, Cai H-S, Gan Y-Q, Liu Y-D (2015) Evaluation of nitrate source in groundwater of southern part of North China Plain based on multi-isotope. J Cent South Univ 22:610–618. doi: 10.1007/s11771-015-2562-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Farid I, Trabelsi R, Zouari K, Abid K, Ayachi M (2013) Hydrogeochemical processes affecting groundwater in an irrigated land in Central Tunisia. Environ Earth Sci 68:1215–1231. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-1788-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gibbs RJ (1970) Mechanisms controlling world water chemistry. Science 17:1088–1090. doi: 10.1126/science.170.3962.1088 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goyal MR, Tripathi VK (2016) Wastewater management for irrigation: principles and practices. Apple Academic Press, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. Han Z (1998) Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China—an overview. Hydrogeol J 6(3):416–420. doi: 10.1007/PL00010968 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jang T, Jung M, Lee E, Park S, Lee J, Jeong H (2013) Assessing environmental impacts of reclaimed wastewater irrigation in paddy fields using bioindicator. Irrig Sci 31:1225–1236. doi: 10.1007/s00271-013-0401-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jin J (2013) Study on early warning of groundwater environment under papermaking wastewater irrigation condition. Master Thesis, Chang’an University, Xi’an (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. Karagüzel R, Irlayici A (1998) Groundwater pollution in the Isparta Plain, Turkey. Environ Geol 34(4):303–308. doi: 10.1007/s002540050282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kassa A, Gavrieli I, Yechieli Y, Vengosh A, Starinsky A (2005) The impact of freshwater and wastewater irrigation on the chemistry of shallow groundwater: a case study from the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. J Hydrol 300:314–331. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Li P (2014) Research on groundwater environment under human interferences: a case study from Weining plain, Northwest China. PhD Thesis, Chang’an University, Xi’an (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Li H, Shao X, Huang X, Liao L (2007) Advance of research on harm of sewage irrigation in farmland and solving countermeasures. Water Saving Irrig 32(2):14–17 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  25. Li P-Y, Qian H, Wu J-H, Ding J (2010) Geochemical modeling of groundwater in southern plain area of Pengyang County, Ningxia, China. Water Sci Eng 3(3):282–291. doi: 10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.004 Google Scholar
  26. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2012) Groundwater quality assessment based on rough sets attribute reduction and TOPSIS method in a semi-arid area, China. Environ Monit Assess 184(8):4841–4854. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2306-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li P, Qian H, Wu J, Zhang Y, Zhang H (2013a) Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater in the Dongsheng Coalfield, Ordos Basin, China. Mine Water Environ 32(3):195–206. doi: 10.1007/s10230-013-0234-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2013b) Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation purposes and identification of hydrogeochemical evolution mechanisms in Pengyang County, China. Environ Earth Sci 69(7):2211–2225. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-2049-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2014a) Effects of irrigation with paper wastewater on soil fertility. In: Proceeding of the 2014 International Conference on GIS and Resource Management (ICGRM 2014). DEStech Publications, Inc., pp 322–328. doi: 10.13140/2.1.4661.3124
  30. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2014b) Hydrogeochemistry and quality assessment of shallow groundwater in the southern part of the Yellow River Alluvial Plain (Zhongwei Section), China. Earth Sci Res J 18(1):27–38. doi: 10.15446/esrj.v18n1.34048 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Li P, Qian H, Wu J, Chen J, Zhang Y (2014c) Zhang H (2014c) Occurrence and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride in shallow alluvial aquifer of Weihe River, China. Environ Earth Sci 71(7):3133–3145. doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2691-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li P, Wu J, Qian H, Lyu X, Liu H (2014d) Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China. Environ Geochem Health 36(4):693–712. doi: 10.1007/s10653-013-9590-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li P, Qian H, Howard KWF, Wu J (2015) Building a new and sustainable ‘‘Silk Road economic belt’’. Environ Earth Sci 74:7267–7270. doi: 10.1007/s12665-015-4739-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Li P, Wu J, Qian H (2016) Hydrochemical appraisal of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes and the major influencing factors: a case study in and around Hua County, China. Arab J Geosci 9(1):15. doi: 10.1007/s12517-015-2059-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Marghade D, Malpe DB, Zade AB (2012) Major ion chemistry of shallow groundwater of a fast growing city of Central India. Environ Monit Assess 184:2405–2418. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2126-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Masto RE, Chhonkar PK, Singh D, Patra AK (2009) Changes in soil quality indicators under long-term sewage irrigation in a sub-tropical environment. Environ Geol 56:1237–1243. doi: 10.1007/s00254-008-1223-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McCallum JL, Crosbie RS, Walker GR, Dawes WR (2010) Impacts of climate change on groundwater in Australia: a sensitivity analysis of recharge. Hydrogeol J 18:1625–1638. doi: 10.1007/s10040-010-0624-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Naseem S, Rafique T, Bashir E, Bhanger MI, Laghari A, Usmani TH (2010) Lithological influences on occurrence of high-fluoride groundwater in Nagar Parkar area, Thar Desert, Pakistan. Chemosphere 78:1313–1321. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.01.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nel J, Xu Y, Batelaan O, Brendonck L (2009) Benefit and implementation of groundwater protection zoning in South Africa. Water Resour Manage 23:2895–2911. doi: 10.1007/s11269-009-9415-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Parkhurst DL, Appelo CAJ (1999). User’s Guide to PHREEQC (Version 2)-A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations. United States Geological Survey. Water Resources Investigations Report 99-4259, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  41. Piper AM (1944) A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. Trans Am Geophys Union 25(6):914–928. doi: 10.1029/TR025i006p00914 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Qian H, Li P (2011) Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in Yinchuan Plain and their control factors. Asian J Chem 23(7):2927–2938Google Scholar
  43. Qian H, Li P, Howard KWF, Yang C, Zhang X (2012a) Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Yinchuan Plain, Northwest China using OREADIC. Environ Monit Assess 184(6):3613–3628. doi: 10.1007/s10661-011-2211-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Qian H, Ma Z, Li P (2012b) Hydrogeochemistry, 2nd edn. Geologic Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  45. Qian H, Li P, Wu J, Zhou Y (2013) Isotopic characteristics of precipitation, surface and ground waters in the Yinchuan plain, Northwest China. Environ Earth Sci 70:57–70. doi: 10.1007/s12665-012-2103-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Qian J, Wang L, Liu Y, Wu B, Wang X (2015) Distribution of nitrate and its implication for the contaminant source in groundwater of Huaibei Plain, Anhui Province. Geosci J 19(3):537–545. doi: 10.1007/s12303-014-0051-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rajesh R, Brindha K, Elango L (2015) Groundwater quality and its hydrochemical characteristics in a shallow weathered rock aquifer of southern India. Water Qual Expo Health 7:515–524. doi: 10.1007/s12403-015-0166-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rattray G (2015) Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Mud Lake area, Eastern Idaho, USA. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8251–8269. doi: 10.1007/s12665-014-3988-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rice EW, Baird RB, Eaton AD, Clesceri LS (2012) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 22nd edn. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Sajil Kumar PJ, Elango L, James EJ (2014) Assessment of hydrochemistry and groundwater quality in the coastal area of South Chennai, India. Arab J Geosci 7:2641–2653. doi: 10.1007/s12517-013-0940-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Salem ZE, Atwia MG, El-Horiny MM (2015) Hydrogeochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater in the reclaimed small basin of Abu Mina, Egypt. Hydrogeol J 23:1781–1797. doi: 10.1007/s10040-015-1303-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sarikhani R, Dehnavi AG, Ahmadnejad Z, Kalantari N (2015) Hydrochemical characteristics and groundwater quality assessment in Bushehr Province, SW Iran. Environ Earth Sci 74:6265–6281. doi: 10.1007/s12665-015-4651-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schacht K, Marschner B (2015) Treated wastewater irrigation effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability of loamy soils in Israel. J Hydrol Hydromech 63(1):47–54. doi: 10.1515/johh-2015-0010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schacht K, Chen Y, Tarchitzky J, Lichner L, Marschner B (2014) Impact of treated wastewater irrigation on water repellency of Mediterranean soils. Irrig Sci 32:369–378. doi: 10.1007/s00271-014-0435-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schlager E (2006) Challenges of governing groundwater in U.S. western states. Hydrogeol J 14:350–360. doi: 10.1007/s10040-005-0012-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Schoeller H (1965) Qualitative evaluation of groundwater resources. In: Methods and techniques of groundwater investigation and development. Water Research Series-33. UNESCO, Delft, pp 54–83Google Scholar
  57. Shurvilin AV, Chernukha NI, Saad GB (2010) Effect of long-term urban wastewater irrigation on heavy metal contamination of soils under conditions of Egypt. Russ Agric Sci 36(6):452–454. doi: 10.3103/S1068367410060170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stiff HA Jr (1951) The interpretation of chemical water analysis by means of patterns. J Petrol Technol 3(10):15–17. doi: 10.2118/951376-G CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tarchouna LG, Merdy P, Raynaud M, Pfeifer H-R, Lucas Y (2010) Effects of long-term irrigation with treated wastewater. Part I: evolution of soil physico-chemical properties. Appl Geochem 25:1703–1710. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2010.08.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vaux H (2011) Groundwater under stress: the importance of management. Environ Earth Sci 62:19–23. doi: 10.1007/s12665-010-0490-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Vetrimurugan E, Elango L (2015) Groundwater chemistry and quality in an intensively cultivated river delta. Water Qual Expo Health 7:125–141. doi: 10.1007/s12403-014-0133-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wang Z, Yang G, Chen X, Fe Y, Zhang F, Chen J (2008) Groundwater contamination caused by wastewater irrigation and its controlling countermeasures. Hydrogeol Eng Geol 35(3):99–103 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  63. World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44584/1/9789241548151_eng.pdf. Accessed 4 Dec 2015
  64. Wu J, Sun Z (2015) Evaluation of shallow groundwater contamination and associated human health risk in an alluvial plain impacted by agricultural and industrial activities. Expo Health, Mid-west China. doi: 10.1007/s12403-015-0170-x Google Scholar
  65. Wu X, Qian H, Yu D, Zhang Q, Yan Z, Wang W, Ji Y, Liu H, Mao Z, Zhao Q (2008) Investigation and assessment of rational allocation of groundwater resources in the Yinchuan Plain. Geologic Publishing House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  66. Wu J, Li P, Qian H, Chen J (2013) Groundwater pollution in and around a paper wastewater-irrigated area, Northwest China. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Digital Manufacturing and Automation (ICDMA 2013). IEEE, pp 649–652. doi: 10.1109/ICDMA.2013.154
  67. Wu J, Li P, Qian H (2014) Using correlation and multivariate statistical analysis to identify hydrogeochemical processes affecting the major ion chemistry of waters: a case study in Laoheba phosphorite mine in Sichuan, China. Arab J Geosci 7(10):3973–3982. doi: 10.1007/s12517-013-1057-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wu J, Li P, Qian H (2015) Hydrochemical characterization of drinking groundwater with special reference to fluoride in an arid area of China and the control of aquifer leakage on its concentrations. Environ Earth Sci 73(12):8575–8588. doi: 10.1007/s12665-015-4018-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yang H, Abbaspour KC (2007) Analysis of wastewater reuse potential in Beijing. Desalination 212:238–250. doi: 10.1016/j.desal.2006.10.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhang Y, Qian H, Li P, Jin H, Wu J, Jin J, Liu H, Liu H, Xie B, Xi W, Xu M, Wang S, Ding Y, Han Z (2012) Research Report on Regional Environmental Condition and Capacity in the Meili Paper Industrial Park. Ningxia Center of Environmental Monitoring, Yinchuan (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  71. Zhang X, Xu Z, Sun X, Dong W, Ballantine D (2013) Nitrate in shallow groundwater in typical agricultural and forest ecosystems in China, 2004–2010. J Environ Sci 25(5):1007–1014. doi: 10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60139-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zhang F, Jin Z, Yu J, Zhou Y, Zhou L (2015) Hydrogeochemical processes between surface and groundwaters on the northeastern Chinese Loess Plateau: implications for water chemistry and environmental evolutions in semi-arid regions. J Geochem Explor 156:101–113. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2015.08.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Zhao Y (2010) Effects of wastewater irrigation on soil and groundwater environment. Shanxi Hydrotech 1:6–8 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
  74. Zheng Z, Xie L, Qian H, Ding F (2014) Prediction and assessment of groundwater environment risks in the Weining Plain. Sunshine Press of the Yellow River Publishing Media, Yinchuan (in Chinese). Statistical analysis of groundwater samplesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Subsurface Hydrology and Ecological Effects in Arid Region of the Ministry of EducationChang’an UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.School of Environmental Science and EngineeringChang’an UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations