Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 545–556 | Cite as

Assessment of Fluoride Pollution in Groundwaters of Arid and Semi-arid Regions of Tonalite–Trondjhemite Series in Central India

  • Asmaa Naaz
  • Bijendar Kumar
  • Chandravir Narayan
  • Kriti Shukla
  • AnshumaliEmail author
Original Paper


The systematic and comprehensive geochemical analysis of dissolved fluoride (F) in thirty-nine groundwater samples were carried out to understand the spatial and temporal variability, areas of potential risk, and mechanism of fluoride precipitation/solubility in Central India. The dissolved ions showed weathering of carbonate minerals in the study area. Fluoride concentrations were beyond the permissible limit (>1.5 mg/l) in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. The fluoride concentrations showed following spatial variations: urban area > village in agricultural area > village in forest area. The human population living in village, urban, and forest areas reported skin, mouth, and stomach problems due to high fluoride in the groundwater. Rainfall shifted the unsaturated to saturated values of SIC and SIF in the monsoon season. Strong indicators of alkaline condition were effective-CO2 pressure (\( { \log }P_{{{\text{CO}}_{ 2} }} \)) and HCO3 /Ca+2 ratio. The dissolved fluoride showed positive relationship with pH, TDS, and HCO3 /Ca+2 explaining the global variability observed in ground water fluoride.


Fluorosis \( { \log }P_{{{\text{CO}}_{ 2} }} \) Archean Saturation index Seasonal variation 



The authors are grateful to Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India and Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad for funding the Ph.D. thesis of Ms. Asmaa Naaz (Registration no. 2013DR0060). We are also thankful to the department of Environmental Science and Engineering Dhanbad for providing the logistic support to carry out field monitoring and laboratory analysis. We greatly appreciate the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, criticism, and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Asmaa Naaz
    • 1
  • Bijendar Kumar
    • 1
  • Chandravir Narayan
    • 1
  • Kriti Shukla
    • 1
  • Anshumali
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian School of MinesDhanbadIndia

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