Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 525–530 | Cite as

Determining Parasite Presence in Raw Municipal Wastewater by Bailenger Method in Kermanshah, Iran

  • Kiomars Sharafi
  • Mehdi Fazlzadeh
  • Meghdad Pirsaheb
  • Hooshmand Sharafi
  • Touba KhosraviEmail author
Original Paper


The aim of this study is to measure the parasite presence in treated and raw sewage by Bailenger method. All the samples were gathered from the influent and effluent of six wastewater treatment plants on a weekly basis in the period of 6 months. Totally, 180 samples were analyzed by microscopy using the modified Bailenger method. The results indicated that the average number of helminth egg and protozoan cysts per liter of raw sewage in Kermanshah, Sarpol-e-Zahab, Paveh, Ghasr-e-Shirin, Islam Abad-e-Gharb, and Gilan-e-Gharb treatment plants was 5.27, 53.41, 45.72, 35.85, 39.94, and 44.8 n/l as well as 30.1, 21.93, 25.42, 19.95, 18.1, and 15.61 n/l, respectively. Also, the highest number of helminth eggs including Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana was observed in the raw sewage of all the treatment plants. Thus, improvements in wastewater treatment, lack of reusing raw sewage for agricultural development, and encouraging the public to apply proper disinfection method for vegetables could be recommended for decreasing parasitic infection in the society.


Kermanshah Parasite infection Raw sewage Bailenger technique 



The authors wish to acknowledge the invaluable cooperating and supporting by Deputy of research committee of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Health services of Kermanshah, Kermanshah wastewater company staff and officials of Kermanshah treatment plant for facilitating the issue of this project, with the No: 88091.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

All authors have read and approved the content of the manuscript and agreed with transfer of the copyright in case accepted for publication. The authors also certify that the manuscript has not been submitted or published elsewhere. All the authors contributed significantly to fit authorship criteria. No potential conflict of interest exists. Sources of funding for this study are covered by Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kiomars Sharafi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mehdi Fazlzadeh
    • 3
  • Meghdad Pirsaheb
    • 1
    • 4
  • Hooshmand Sharafi
    • 1
  • Touba Khosravi
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Research Center for Environmental Determinants of HealthKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran
  2. 2.Environmental Health Engineering Department, Public Health SchoolTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public HealthArdabil University of Medical SciencesArdabilIran
  4. 4.B.S Student of Science & Engineering of Soil, School of AgricultureRazi UniversityKermanshahIran
  5. 5.Department of Environmental Health, School of Public HealthKermanshah University of Medical SciencesKermanshahIran

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