Advertisement

Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 163–172 | Cite as

A Dynamic Model to Quantify Pathogen Loadings from Combined Sewer Overflows Suitable for River Basin Scale Exposure Assessments

  • Rishab Mahajan
  • James G. Uber
  • Joseph N. S. EisenbergEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Raw sewage discharges from Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) during rainfall can severely impact microbial drinking water quality. These pathogen loading events are episodic and short lasting. Traditional risk assessment that uses mean exposure values will therefore average out these short term duration high risk events, and result in underestimates of risk. A more accurate approach requires a characterization of the exposure dynamics that result from multiple upstream CSO communities, creating a challenge for more computational and data intensive urban watershed models. To this end, we developed a simple dynamic model of CSOs to estimate overflow discharges from combined sewer networks for river basin scale exposure assessments. The impervious subcatchment and sewer system are modeled as linear reservoirs in series. The overflow volume estimates of this CSO model were found to be in good agreement with a sophisticated hydrodynamic model (SWMM), and with real overflow data with R 2 values of 0.96 and 0.91, respectively. Pathogen loadings from CSO’s were estimated by superimposing simulation of overflow discharges on raw sewage enteric pathogen concentration. We apply this simplistic approach to estimate pathogen concentration due to multiple upstream CSO’s in a hypothetical river basin, demonstrating that this simplified model is suitable for representing the dynamics of CSO induced pathogen loadings into receiving waters. The model serves a framework to estimate the dynamics of pathogen loadings that are central to river basin microbial risk assessments.

Keywords

Combined sewer overflows Enteric pathogens River basin scale 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by USEPA Star Grant RD8317270. We thank Joseph Koran, Frank Brown and Ann Bealer at MSD-GC for making the overflow data available.

References

  1. Anderson AD, Heryford AG, Sarisky JP, Higgins C, Monroe SS, Beard RS, Newport CM, Cashdollar JL, Fout GS, Robbins DE, Seys SA, Musgrave KJ, Medus C, Vinje J (2001) A water borne outbreak of norwalk-like virus among snowmobilers-wyoming. J Infect Dis 187(2):303–306 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown CM, Cann JW, Simons G, Frankhauser RL, Thomas W, Parashar UD, Lewis MJ (2001) Outbreak of norwalk virus in a Caribbean island resort: application of molecular diagnostics to ascertain the vehicle of infection. Epidemiol Infect 126(3):425–432 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Donovan E, Urice K, Roberts JD, Harris M, Finley B (2007) Risk of gastrointestinal disease associated with exposure to pathogens in water of the lower Passaic river. Appl Environ Microbiol 74(4):994–1003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ferguson CM, Croke BFW, Ashbolt NJ, Beatson PJ, Deere DA (2007) Development of a process-based model to predict pathogen budgets for the Sydney drinking water catchment. J Water Health 05:187–208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Green KY, Ando T, Balayan MS, Berke T, Clarke IN, Estes MK, Matson DO, Nakata S, Neill JD, Studdert MJ, Thiel H-J (2000) Taxonomy of the caliciviruses. J Infect Dis 181:S322–S330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hafliger D, Hubner P, Luthy J (2000) Outbreak of viral gastroenteritis due to sewage-contaminated drinking water. Int J Food Microbiol 54:123–126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Haramoto E, Katayama H, Oguma K, Yamashita H, Tajima A, Nakajima H, Ohgaki S (2006) Seasonal profiles of human noroviruses and indicator bacteria in a wastewater treatment plant in Tokyo, Japan. Water Sci Technol J Int Assoc Water Pollut Res 54(11–12):301–308. PUBM: Print; JID: 9879497; 0 (Sewage); publish CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Haramoto E, Katayama H, Phanuwan C, Ohgaki S (2008) Quantitative detection of sapoviruses in wastewater and river water in Japan. Lett Appl Microbiol 46(3):408–413 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hooke R, Jeeves TA (1961) Direct search solution of numerical and statistical problems. J ACM 8:212–229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Johansen NB, Linde-Jensen JJ, Harremoes P (1984) Computing combined systemoverflow based on historical rain series. In: Third international conference on urban storm drainage. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg Google Scholar
  11. Kistemann T, Classen T, Koch C, Dangendorf F, Fischeder R, Gebel J, Vacata V, Exner M (2002) Microbial load of drinking water reservoir tributaries during extreme rainfall and runoff. Appl Environ Microbiol 68(5):2188–2197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lodder WJ, de Roda Husman AM (2005) Presence of norovirus and other enteric viruses in sewage and surface waters in The Netherlands. J Appl Environ Microbiol 71(3):1453–1461 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lodder WJ, Vinje J, van De Heide R, de Roda Husman AM, Leenen EJ, Koopmans MP (1999a) Molecular detection of norwalk-like caliciviruses in sewage. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(12):5624–5627 Google Scholar
  14. Lodder WJ, Vinje J, van De Heide R, de Roda Husman AM, Leenen EJ, Koopmans MP (1999b) Molecular detection of norwalk-like caliciviruses in sewage. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(12):5624–5627 Google Scholar
  15. Marquardt D (1963) An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters. SIAM J Appl Math 11:431–441 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Masago Y, Katayama H, Watanabe T, Haramoto E, Omuru T, Hirata T, Oghaki S (2006) Quantative risk assessment of noroviruses in drinking water based on qualitative data in Japan. Environ Sci Technol 40:7428–7433 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Matlab Documentation (2007) The Mathworks Inc., r2007b edition Google Scholar
  18. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV (1999) Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5(6):841–842 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. MSD-GC (2006) Combined sewer overflow monitoring program annual report 2006. Metropolitian sewer district of greater Cincinnati Google Scholar
  20. NOAA (2013) National climatic data center. www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/ncdc.html
  21. Paulsen (1986) Kontinuierliche simulation von abflüssen und schmutzfrachten in der trennentwässerung. Technical report, Mitteilunges des Institutes für Wasserwirtschaft Universität Hannover Google Scholar
  22. Pederson JT, Peters JC, Helweg OJ (1980) Hydrographs by a single reservoir model. J Hydraul Div 106(5):837–852 Google Scholar
  23. Rauch W, Krejci V, Gujer W (2002) Rebeka–a software tool for planning urban drainage on the basis of predicted impacts on receiving waters. Urban Water 4(4):355–361. ISSN 1462-0758. URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VR2-45KT109-4/2/7e8da2f973e9035d7b384f4f12df59cd CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rodriguez R (2007) Occurrence of enteric viruses on combined sewer overflows. PhD thesis, University of Arizona Google Scholar
  25. Rossman LA (2008) EPA SWMM users manual. Water supply and water resources division, US environmental protection agency, Cincinnati, OH Google Scholar
  26. Ruan M (1999) Computational modeling of emission from combined sewer overflows. PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology Google Scholar
  27. Ruan M, Wiggers JBM (1998) A conceptual CSO emission model: sewsim. Water Sci Technol 37(1):259–267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. USCS (1986) A method for estimating volume and rate of runoff for urban watersheds. US soil conservation service Google Scholar
  29. Vaes G, Berlamont J (1999) Emission prediction by a multi linear reservoir model. Water Sci Technol 39(2):9–16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. van den Berg H, Lodder W, van der Poel W, Vennema H, de Roda Husman AM (2005) Genetic diversity of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage water. Res Microbiol 156(4):532–540 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Walski T, Barnard TE, Merritt LB, Harold E, Walker N, Whitman BE (2004) Wastewater collection system modeling and design. In: Haestods methods. ISBN 0-9657580-9-5 Google Scholar
  32. Westrell T, Bergstedt O, Stenstrom TA, Ashbolt NJ (2003) A theoretical approach to assess microbial risks due to failures in drinking water systems. Int J Environ Health Res 13(2):181–197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Westrell T, Teunis P, van den Berg H, Lodder W, Ketelaars H, Stenstrom TA, de Roda Husman AM (2006) Short- and long-term variations of norovirus concentrations in the Meuse river during a 2-year study period. Water Res 40(14):2613–2620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rishab Mahajan
    • 1
  • James G. Uber
    • 1
  • Joseph N. S. Eisenberg
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CincinnatiCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations