Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 2, Issue 3–4, pp 169–179 | Cite as

A Comparative Study on Hydrogeochemistry of Ken and Betwa Rivers of Bundelkhand Using Statistical Approach

  • Ram AvtarEmail author
  • Pankaj Kumar
  • C. K. Singh
  • S. Mukherjee


In this paper, we have studied the comparative hydrogeochemistry of the Ken and Betwa Rivers of Bundelkhand area, considering the importance of the Ken–Betwa River linking project (KBLP) in India. Factor analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) has been done to identify the highly correlated and interrelated water-quality parameters. All the physico-chemical parameters for both rivers are within the highest desirable or maximum permissible limit set by WHO (World Health Organization) except some anions viz. \(\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}\), Cl, \(\mathrm{SO}_{4}^{2-}\) and F at some sampling points. The Ken River showed a high spatial variability and significant ionic concentration due to the higher geological and pedological watershed richness as well as absence of pollution from anthropogenic point sources. The Betwa River showed a low spatial variability and higher mineralization due to the anthropogenic point sources that exist downstream. This preliminary study shows the spatio-temporal variability of the hydrogeochemical parameters of the Ken–Betwa River basin.


Ken–Betwa River linking project (KBLP) Principal component analysis (PCA) Factor analysis Land use/land cover Rainfall 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ram Avtar
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Pankaj Kumar
    • 2
  • C. K. Singh
    • 3
  • S. Mukherjee
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Industrial SciencesThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  3. 3.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia
  4. 4.Institute of Industrial ScienceThe University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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