Advertisement

Water Quality, Exposure and Health

, Volume 1, Issue 3–4, pp 145–158 | Cite as

Pesticide Impact Assessment via Using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Technique in the Lower Rio Grande River Basin, Texas

  • Ni-Bin ChangEmail author
  • Skaria Mani
  • G. Parvathinathan
  • R. Srilakshmi Kanth
Article

Abstract

This paper presents a field survey using health impact assessment approach trying to: (1) demonstrate a basic soil and groundwater survey/sampling, (2) investigate any possible long-term pesticide contamination in connection with citrus orchard pesticide application, and (3) conduct an assessment review of possible pesticide impacts on public health in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV), Texas. A sampling plan was prepared to collect samples that include soil from a citrus orchard of Texas A&M Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Weslaco, located in the Hidalgo county and groundwater from domestic and public wells located in the neighboring LRGV region. Field investigation of the contamination was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique and the analytical results indicated that there is no considerable concentration of simazine pesticide in soil and groundwater. All of the measurements are below the maximum contamination limit (MCL) value provided by US EPA. A statistical assessment was also performed on the cancer mortality rates in the LRGV region to identify any significant health concerns in this region. After reviewing several relevant reports, it is inferred that there are no apparent health issues in the LRGV region in relation to such pesticide impact and the mortality rates in the valley are lower than the average mortality rates in Texas during the period 1992–2002. T-test confirmed the absence of any significant difference between the three counties in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (Webb, Cameron and Hidalgo) in terms of the cancer mortality rates.

Keywords

Environmental monitoring Groundwater and soil contamination Pesticides Agriculture Epidemiology ELISA Cancer 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adami HO, Lipworth L, Titus-Ernstoff L, Hsieh CC, Hanberg A, Ahlborg U, Baron J, Trichopoulos D (1995) Organochlorine compounds and estrogen-related cancers in women. Cancer Causes Control 6:551–566 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amin R, Malek MA, Rahman M, Hoque E (1998) Enzyme immunoassay for atrazine analysis in water and soil. Pestic Sci 52:152–158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronson KJ, Miller AB, Woolcott CG, Sterns EE, McCready DR, Lickley LA, Fish EB, Hiraki GY, Holloway C, Ross T, Hanna WM, SenGupta SK, Weber JP (2000) Breast adipose tissue concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines and breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 9:55–63 Google Scholar
  4. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1995) Official Methods of Analysis, eighteenth edn. AOAC International, Arlington, VA Google Scholar
  5. Azevedo e Silva Mendonca G (1998) Measuring exposure of organochlorinated pesticides. Cad Saude Publica 14:177–179 Google Scholar
  6. Bagga D, Anders KH, Wang HJ, Roberts E, Glaspy JA (2000) Organochlorine pesticide content of breast adipose tissue from women with breast cancer and control subjects. J Natl Cancer Inst 92:750–753 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berstein L, Ross R (1993) Endogenous hormones and breast cancer risk. Epidemiol Rev 15:48–65 Google Scholar
  8. Brender JD, Suarez L (1990) Paternal occupation and anencephaly. Am J Epidemiol 131:517–521 Google Scholar
  9. Brown CD, Carter AD, Hollis JM (1995) Soils and pesticide mobility. In: Roberts TR, Kearny PC (eds) Environmental behaviour of agrochemicals. Wiley, New York, pp 132–184 Google Scholar
  10. Carson RL (1962) Silent spring. Riverside Press, Cambridge Google Scholar
  11. Chang NB, Srilakshmi KR, Parvathinathan G (2008) Comparison of models of simazine transport and fate in subsurface environment in a citrus farm. J Environ Manag 86:27–43 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen Y, Duh J, Wang Y (1983) The influence of climate and soil properties on the degradation of simazine in soils in Taiwan. Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China 7:36–41 Google Scholar
  13. Chuang JC, Larry SM, Dave BD, Carole SP, Jeffre CJ, Jeanette MV (1998) Analysis of soil and dust samples for polychlorinated biphenyls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Anal Chem Acta 376:67–75 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chuang JC, Jeanette MV, Chou YL, Nadia J, Joshua KF, Nancy KW (2003) Comparison of immunoassay and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated soil. Anal Chim Acta 486:31–39 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davis D, Bradlow H, Wolff M, Woodruff T, Hoel D, Anton-Culver H (1993) Medical hypothesis: xenoestrogens as preventable causes of breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 101:372–377 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dewailly E, Dodin S, Verreault R (1994) High organochlorine burden in women with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:232–234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dorgan JF, Brock JW, Rothman N, Needham LL, Miller R, Stephenson HE Jr, Schussler N, Taylor PR (1999) Serum organochlorine pesticides and PCBs and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective analysis (USA). Cancer Causes Control 10:1–11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Du Q, Chang NB, Srilakshmi Kanth R (2006) Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management. J Environ Manag. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.11.019
  19. Du Q, Chang NB, Srilakshmi Kanth R (2008) Combination of multispectral remote sensing, variable rate technology and environmental modeling for citrus pest management. J Environ Manag 86:14–26 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Emans HJB, Beek MA, Linders JBHJ (1992) Evaluation system for pesticides (ESPE) I. Agricultural pesticides. Rep. No. 679101004, National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands Google Scholar
  21. Extension Toxicology Network (EXTOXNET) (2006) http://extoxnet.orst.edu/pips/atrazine.htm. Accessed in 2006
  22. Flury M (1996) Experimental evidence of transport of pesticides through field soils—a review. J Environ Qual 25:25–45 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fraser AJ, Burkow IC, Wolkers H, Mackay D (2002) Modeling biomagnification and metabolism of contaminants in harp seals of the Barents Sea. Environ Toxicol Chem 21:55–61 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gammon MD, Terry MB, Teitelbaum SL, Britton JA, Levin B (1998) Organochlorine residues and breast cancer. N Engl J Med 338:989–991 Google Scholar
  25. Gilvanda SN, Ilda AT, Barcelo D (1998) Analysis of pesticides in food and environmental samples by enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assays. Trends Anal Chem 17(2) Google Scholar
  26. Guttes S, Failing K, Neumann K, Kleinstein J, Georgii S, Brunn H (1998) Chlororganic pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast tissue of women with benign and malignant breast disease. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 35:140–147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hammock BD, Gee SJ, Harrison RO, Jung F, Goodrow MH, Li QX, Lucas A, Szekacs A, Sundaram KMS (1991) Immunochemical technology in environmental analysis: addressing critical problems. In: Van Emon, JM, Mumma, RO (eds) Immunochemical methods for environmental analysis Google Scholar
  28. Hayes TB, Collins A, Lee M, Mendoza M, Noriega N, Stuart AA, Vonk A (2002) Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposure to the herbicide atrazine at low ecologically relevant doses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:5476–5480 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Huang HY, Hoffman SC, Strickland PT, Brock JW, Burse VW, Needham LL, Bell DA, Lavigne JA, Yager JD, Comstock GW (1999) Serum concentrations of organochlorine compounds and the subsequent development ofbreast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 8:525–532 Google Scholar
  30. Hennion MC, Barcelo D (1998) Strengths and limitations of immunoassays for effective and efficient use for pesticide analysis in water samples. Anal Chim Acta 362:3–34 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hock B, Giersch T, Dankwardt A, Kramer K, Pullen S (2006) Toxicity assessment and on-line monitoring: immunoassays. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 9(4):243–262 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Holland JM, Frampton GK, Cilgy T, Wratten SD (1994) Arable acronyms analysed—a review of integrated arable farming systems research in Western Europe. Ann Appl Biol 125:399–438 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hoyer AP, Jorgensen T, Brock JW, Grandjean P (2000) Organochlorine exposure and breast cancer survival. J Clin Epidemiol 53:323–330 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hulka B (1995) Epidemiologic analysis of breast and gynaecologic cancers. In: Aldaz C, Gould M, McLachlan J, Slaga T (eds) Proceedings of the ninth international conference on carcinogenesis and risk assessment. Wiley, Chichester, pp 17–30 Google Scholar
  35. Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, Laden F, Colditz GA, Manson JE, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Wolff MS (1997) Plasma organochlorine levels and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med 337:1253–1258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Iacovo DR, Celentano E, Strollo AM, Iazzetta G, Capasso I, Randazzo G (1999) Organochlorines and breast cancer. A study on Neapolitan women. Adv Exp Med Biol 472:57–66 Google Scholar
  37. Jackson ML (1958) Soil Chem Anal 214–221 Google Scholar
  38. John EM, Kelsey JL (1993) Radiation and other environmental exposures and breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 15:157–162 Google Scholar
  39. Johnson-Thompson MC, Guthrie J (2000) Ongoing research to identify environmental risk factors in breast carcinoma. Cancer 88:1224–1229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Keith L, Johnson T (1997) Environmental endocrine disrupters: a handbook of property data. Instance References Sources Inc., Texas Google Scholar
  41. Kelsey J (1993) Breast cancer epidemiology: summary and future directions. Epidemiol Rev 15:257–263 Google Scholar
  42. Kettles MA, Browning SR, Prince TS, Horstman SW (1997) Triazine herbicide exposure and breast cancer incidence: an ecological study of Kentucky counties. Environ Health Perspect 105:1222–1227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Key TJ, Verkasalo PK, Banks E (2001) Epidemiology of breast cancer. Lancet Oncol 2:133–140 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim K-R, Son E-W, Rhee D-K, Pyo S (2002) The immunomodulatory effects of the herbicide simazine on murine macrophage functions in vitro. Toxicol in Vitro 16:517–523 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kosary C, Hankey B, Miller B, Harras A, Edwards B (1997) SEER cancer statistics review, 1973–1994. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda Google Scholar
  46. Krieger RI, Ross JH, Thongsinthusak T (1992) Assessing human exposures to pesticides. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 128:1–15 Google Scholar
  47. Krieger N, Wolff M, Hiatt R, Rivera M, Vogelman J, Orentreich N (1994) Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: a prospective study among white, black and Asian women. J Natl Cancer Inst 86:589–599 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Laden F, Hunter DJ (1998) Environmental risk factors and female breast cancer. Ann Rev Public Health 19:101–123 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liljegren G, Hardell L, Lindstrom G, Dahl P, Magnuson A (1998) Case–control study on breast cancer and adipose tissue concentrations of congener specific polychlorinated biphenyls, DDE and hexachlorobenzene. Eur J Cancer Prev 7:135–140 Google Scholar
  50. Lippman ME, Monaco ME, Bolan G (1977) Effects of estrone, estradiol and estriol on hormone-responsive human breast cancer in long-term tissue culture. Cancer Res 37:1901–1907 Google Scholar
  51. Lipworth L (1995) Epidemiology of breast cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 4:7–30 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Longnecker MP, Ryan JJ, Gladen BC, Schecter AJ (2000) Correlations among human plasma levels of dioxin-like compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and implications for epidemiologic studies. Arch Environ Health 55:195–200 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Madigan MP, Ziegler RG, Benichou J, Byrne C, Hoover RN (1995) Proportion of breast cancer cases in the United States explained by well-established risk factors. J Nat Cancer Inst 87:1681–1685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mendonca GA, Eluf-Neto J, Andrada-Serpa MJ, Carmo PA, Barreto HH, Inomata ON, Kussumi TA (1999) Organochlorines and breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazil. Int J Cancer 83:596–600 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Muir CG, Norstrom RJ, Simon M (1988) Organochlorine contaminants in artic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds. Environ Sci Technol 22:1071–1079 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Musick S, Cherepon A, Peters P (2000) Immunoassay analysis for the determination of pesticides in groundwater samples. TNRCC Report, Office of Environmental Policy, Analysis and Assessment, Groundwater Assessment Section, Austin, Texas Google Scholar
  57. Navas A, Díaz F, García Sánchez J, Lovillo JA, González García (1996) Enhanced chemiluminescence kinetic ELISA of dichlorprop methyl ester. Anal Chim Acta 321:219–224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Perkins JL, Zavaleta AN, Mudd, G, Bollinger M, Muirhead Y, Cisneros J (2001) The Lower Rio Grande Valley Community Health Assessment, Oct 2001. www.sph.uth.tmc.edu/uploadedFiles/Regional_Campuses/Brownsville/LRGV_ASSESSMENT.pdf
  59. Pimentel D (1995) Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: environmental impacts and ethics. J Agric Environ Ethics 8:17–29 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pimentel D, Levitan L (1986) Pesticides: amounts applied and amounts reaching pests. Bioscience 36:86–91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rahman A, Holland PT (1985) Persistence and mobility of simazine in some New Zealand soils. N Z J Exp Agric 13:59–65 Google Scholar
  62. Redondo MJ (1997) Dissipation and distribution of atrazine, simazine, chlorpyrifos, and tetradifon residues in citrus orchard soil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:346–352 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Ries L, Kosary C, Hankey B, Miller B, Edwards B (1998) SEER cancer statistics review, 1973–1995. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda Google Scholar
  64. Santodonato J (1997) Review of the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relationship to carcinogenicity. Chemosphere 34:835–848 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sever LE, Gilbert ES, Hessol NA, McIntyre J (1988) A case-control study of congenital malformations and occupational exposure to low-level ionizing radiation. Am J Epidemiol 127:226–242 Google Scholar
  66. Snedeker SM, Clark H (1998) Cornell University Program on Breast Cancer and Environmental Risk Factors in New York State (BCERF), published by the Institute for Comparative and Environmental Toxicology (ICET) in the Cornell Center for the Environment, Oct. Google Scholar
  67. Strandberg MT, Scott-Fordsmand JJ (2002) Field effects of simazine at lower trophic levels—a review. Sci Total Environ 296(1–3):117–137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Texas Cancer Data Center (TCDC) (2006) www.txcancer.org, Accessed in 2006
  69. Texas Pesticide Information Network (TPIN) (2006) TNRCC Stored database. http://www.texascenter.org/txpin/waterpst.pdf. Accessed in 2006
  70. Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) (2001) Rio Grande Regional Water Plan, http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/. Accessed in 2006
  71. US Geological Survey (USGS) (2006) The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters-USGS Report Pesticides in the Nation’s Streams and Ground Water, 1992–2001 By Robert J. Gilliom, Jack E. Barbash, Charles G. Crawford, Pixie A. Hamilton, Jeffrey D. Martin, Naomi Nakagaki, Lisa H. Nowell, Jonathan C. Scott, Paul E. Stackelberg, Gail P. Thelin, and David M. Wolock, March, 2006 Google Scholar
  72. US EPA (1994) Atrazine, simazine and cyanazine; notice of initiation of special review. Fed Reg 59:60412–60443 Google Scholar
  73. Vredeveld G, Bullard R, Sells M, Sims S, West J (1983) Energy comparison in three cases of pesticide versus bio-control pest management. Agric Ecosyst Environ 9(1):51–56 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Walkley A (1947) A critical examination of a rapid method for determination of organic carbon in soils—effect of variations in digestion conditions and of inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci 63:251–257 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Walkley A, Black IA (1934) An examination of Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci 37:29–37 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Watanabe E, Euna H, Babaa K, Arao T, Ishii Y, Endoa S, Ueji M (2004) Rapid and simple screening analysis for residual imidacloprid in agricultural products with commercially available ELISA. Anal Chem Acta 521:45–51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. White FMM, Cohen FG, Sherman G, McCurdy R (1988) Chemicals, birth defects and stillbirths in New Brunswick. Can Med Assoc J 138:117–124 Google Scholar
  78. Wolff MS, Toniolo PG, Lee EW, Rivera M, Dubin N (1993) Blood levels of organochlorine residues and risk of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 85:648–52 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. WSSA (1994) Simazine. In: Ahrens WH (ed) Herbicide handbook, 7th edn. Weed Science Society of America, Champaign, pp 270–272 Google Scholar
  80. Zaruk D, Alaee M, Sverko E, Comba M (1998a) Occurrence of triazine herbicides and metolachlor in the Niagara River and other major tributaries draining into Lake Ontario. Anal Chim Acta 376:113–117 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zaruk D, Cancilla D, Crosbie PB (1998b) Chow-Frazer, Immunoassays at the national laboratory for environmental testing: a Canadian perspective. In: Proceedings of the immunochemistry summit V, first national convention, August 1996, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1998 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ni-Bin Chang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Skaria Mani
    • 2
  • G. Parvathinathan
    • 3
  • R. Srilakshmi Kanth
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  2. 2.Citrus CenterTexas A&M University-KingsvilleWeslacoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Environmental EngineeringTexas A&M University-KingsvilleKingsvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations