Factor structure and clinical correlates of the 61-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS)
- 49 Downloads
The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure and clinical correlates of a 61-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a self-report retrospective measure of childhood problems, experiences, and behavior used in ADHD assessment. Given the currently mostly widely used form of the WURS was derived via a criterion-keyed approach, the study aimed to use latent variable modeling of the 61-item WURS to potentially identify more and more homogeneous set of items reflecting current conceptualizations of ADHD symptoms. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used to generate factor scores which were then correlated with neuropsychological measures of intelligence and executive attention as well as a broad measure of personality and emotional functioning. Support for a modified five-factor model was found: ADHD, disruptive mood and behavior, negative affectivity, social confidence, and academic problems. The ADHD factor differed somewhat from the traditional 25-item WURS short form largely through weaker associations with several measures of personality and psychopathology. This study identified a factor more aligned with DSM-5 conceptualization of ADHD as well as measures of other types of childhood characteristics and symptoms which may prove useful for both research and clinical practice.
KeywordsADHD WURS PAI Neuropsychological assessment Psychopathology
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
All authors have no conflicts of interest to report.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Barkley RA (2011) Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV). Guilford Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Barkley RA (2015) Emotional dysregulation as a core component of ADHD. In: Barkley RA (ed) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 81–115Google Scholar
- Bauermeister JJ, Shrout PE, Ramírez R, Bravo M, Alegría M, Martínez-Taboas A, Chávez L, Rubio-Stipec M, García P, Ribera JC, Canino G (2007) ADHD correlates, comorbidity, and impairment in community and treated samples of children and adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol 35:883–898CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bracken B, Boatwright B (2005) CAT-A, clinical assessment of attention deficit-adult professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, LutzGoogle Scholar
- Brickenkamp R, Zillmer E (1998) The d2 test of attention (1st U.S. edn). Hogrefe & Huber, SeattleGoogle Scholar
- Caci HM, Bouchez J, Baylé FJ (2010) An aid for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at adulthood: psychometric properties of the French versions of two Wender Utah Rating Scales (WURS-25 and WURS-K). Compr Psychiatry 51:325–331. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.05.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Conners CK (1994) Conners’ continuous performance test computer program 3.0 user’s manual. Multi-Health Systems, TorontoGoogle Scholar
- Das D, Vélez JI, Acosta MT, Muenke M, Arcos-Burgos M, Easteal S (2016) Retrospective assessment of childhood ADHD symptoms for diagnosis in adults: validity of a short 8-item version of the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. ADHD Atten Deficit Hyperact Disord 8:215–223. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12402-016-0202-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Demler O, Faraone SV, Greenhill LL, Howes MJ, Secnik K, Spencer T (2006) The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry 163:716–723. https://doi.org/10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.716 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lee IA, Preacher KJ (2013) Calculation for the test of the difference between two dependent correlations with one variable in common. Retrieved from http://quantpsy.org. Accessed 01 June 2018
- Morey LC (1991) The Personality Assessment Inventory. Psychological Assessment Resources, OdessaGoogle Scholar
- Muthén LK, Muthén BO (2017) Mplus user’s guide, 8th edn. Muthén & Muthén, Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
- Oncü B, Olmez S, Sentürk V (2005) Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults. Turk J Psychiatry 16:252–259Google Scholar
- Ramsay R (2015) Psychological assessment of adults with ADHD. In: Barkley RA (ed) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a handbook for diagnosis and treatment. The Guilford Press, New York, pp 475–500Google Scholar
- Wechsler D (1997) WAIS-III administration and scoring manual. The Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar