Factor structure and clinical correlates of the 61-item Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS)

  • Matthew Calamia
  • Benjamin D. Hill
  • Mandi W. Musso
  • Russell D. Pella
  • Wm. Drew Gouvier
Original Article


The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure and clinical correlates of a 61-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a self-report retrospective measure of childhood problems, experiences, and behavior used in ADHD assessment. Given the currently mostly widely used form of the WURS was derived via a criterion-keyed approach, the study aimed to use latent variable modeling of the 61-item WURS to potentially identify more and more homogeneous set of items reflecting current conceptualizations of ADHD symptoms. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used to generate factor scores which were then correlated with neuropsychological measures of intelligence and executive attention as well as a broad measure of personality and emotional functioning. Support for a modified five-factor model was found: ADHD, disruptive mood and behavior, negative affectivity, social confidence, and academic problems. The ADHD factor differed somewhat from the traditional 25-item WURS short form largely through weaker associations with several measures of personality and psychopathology. This study identified a factor more aligned with DSM-5 conceptualization of ADHD as well as measures of other types of childhood characteristics and symptoms which may prove useful for both research and clinical practice.


ADHD WURS PAI Neuropsychological assessment Psychopathology 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Louisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA
  2. 2.University of South AlabamaMobileUSA
  3. 3.Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical CenterBaton RougeUSA
  4. 4.Neurometrics, LLCColorado SpringsUSA

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