Effective Seed Priming Methods Improving Germination and Emergence of Sugar Beet Under Low-Temperature Stress

Abstract

Low soil temperature causes delayed and unsynchronized germination, emergence, and seedling growth, which increases the probability of seedling diseases and weed infestation during stand establishment of sugar beet. In this study, different seed priming methods (control, hydration, aerated hydration, preconditioning, GA3, KNO3, and kinetin) were examined to promote the germination, emergence, and seedling growth performance of sugar beet seeds under low temperatures (10 °C and 18 °C) and optimum (25 °C) conditions. Results showed that seed treatments gave higher germination, emergence, and seedling length along with shorter mean time to germination and emergence than unprimed seeds at low and optimum temperatures. However, a suitable seed treatment at low and optimum temperature was different. Preconditioning gave better results than the control seeds, while it was not superior to other seeds treatments. At 10 °C, emergence percentage increased from 37.0% in unprimed seeds to 99.5% in seeds treated with 1% of KNO3. The lower temperature resulted in delaying the mean time to germination and emergence. Aerated hydration was found to be most suitable method for enhancement of germination and seedling growth at all temperatures. It was concluded that 8–16 h of hydration with aeration or 1% of KNO3 should be recommended for enhancement of emergence and seedling growth of sugar beet under low temperature compared to other treatments.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Anonymous. 2020. https://biruni.tuik.gov.tr/medas/?kn=92&locale=tr. Accessed 24 Mar 2020.

  2. Bezhin, K., H.J. Santel, and R. Gerhards. 2018. The effect of sugar beet seed priming on sugar beet yield and weed suppressive ability. Journal of Plant Sciences 6(4): 149–156.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Demir, I., and G. Okcu. 2004. Aerated hydration treatment for improved germination and seedling growth in aubergine (Solarium melongena) and pepper (Capsicum annuum). Annals of Applied Biology 144: 121–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Er, C., and S. Uranbey. 2003. Starch and sugar crops (Nişasta ve Şeker Bitkileri in Turkish). Ankara: Ankara University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  5. ISTA. 2003. International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association Edition 2003 Bassersdorf.

  6. Jalali, A.H., and F. Salehi. 2013. Sugar beet yield as affected by seed priming and weed control. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 59: 281–288.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Jamil, M., and E.S. Rha. 2007. Gibberellic acid (GA3) enhance seed water uptake, germination and early seedling growth in sugar beet under salt stress. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10(4): 654–658.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kandil, A.A., A.E. Sharief, W.A.E. Abido, and A.M. Awed. 2014. Effect of gibberellic acid on germination behaviour of sugar beet cultivars under salt stress conditions of Egypt. Sugar Tech 16(2): 211–221.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Khan, A.A., N.H. Peck, A.G. Taylor, and C. Samimy. 1983. Osmoconditioning of beet seeds to improve emergence and yield in cold soil. Agronomy Journal 75: 788–794.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Kulan, E.G., and M.D. Kaya. 2016. Investigation of coated and uncoated seeds of sugar beet with respect to germination, emergence and yield. Journal of Central Research Institute for Field Crops 25: 83–87.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Mehra, V., J. Tripathi, and A.A. Powell. 2003. Aerated hydration treatment improves the response of Brassica juncea and Brassica campestris seeds to stress during germination. Seed Science and Technology 31: 57–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Michalska-Klimczak, B., Z. Wyszyński, V. Pačuta, M. Rašovský, and A. Różańska. 2018. The effect of seed priming on field emergence and root yield of sugar beet. Plant, Soil and Environment 64(5): 227–232.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Miloševic, M., M. Vujakovic, and D. Karagic. 2010. Vigour tests as indicators of seed viability. Genetika 42: 103–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Murray, G., B.J. Swensen, and J.J. Gallian. 1993. Emergence of sugar beet seedlings at low soil temperature following seed soaking and priming. HortScience 28(1): 31–32.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Orzeszko-Rywka, A., and S. Podlaski. 2003. The effect of sugar beet seed treatments on their vigour. Plant, Soil and Environment 49(6): 249–254.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Podlaski, S., and C. Chomontowski. 2020. Various methods of assessing sugar beet seed vigour and its impact on the germination process, field emergence and sugar yield. Sugar Tech 22(1): 130–136.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Rush, C.M. 1991. Comparison of seed priming techniques with regard to seedling emergence and Pythium damping-off in sugar beet. Phytopathology 88: 878–888.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Salehzade, H., M.I. Shishvan, M. Ghiyasi, F. Forouzin, and A.A. Siyahjani. 2009. Effect of seed priming on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Research Journal of Biological Sciences Introduction 4: 629–631.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Taylor, A.G., Y. Hadar, J.M. Norton, A.A. Khan, and G.E. Harman. 1985. Influence of presowing seed treatments of table beets on the susceptibility of damping off caused by Pythium. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 110(4): 516–519.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Scientific Research Project Unit (BAP) (Project Number 2017-1253) of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Turkey, for financial support.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mehmet Demir Kaya.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animals Rights

The authors declare that no research involving human participants and/or animals was conducted.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kaya, M.D., Kulan, E.G. Effective Seed Priming Methods Improving Germination and Emergence of Sugar Beet Under Low-Temperature Stress. Sugar Tech (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12355-020-00848-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Beta vulgaris L.
  • Hydration
  • Aeration
  • KNO3
  • Cold temperature