Distinguish regional performance with the use of shift-share analysis and MCDA methods: a gross value added perspective


This study aims to take into account regional gross value added, to assess the performance of this macroeconomic component for all thirteen Regions of Greece. We apply two different methods for the period between 2010 and 2016, (1) the PROMETHEE II Multi-criteria method and (2) Shift and Share Analysis (SHA). In a nutshell, in nine out of thirteen Regions of Greece, the Promethee II method ranks the regions of Greece in a wholly identical or relatively similar manner to the SHA method, indicating that there is a robust framework considering the joint review for both proposed methods regarding regional performance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    i.e. due to the difference: \(\frac{{{\text{e}}_{{{\rm ij}}}^{0} }}{{{\text{e}}_{{.{\rm j}}} ^{0} }} - \frac{{{\text{e}}_{{{\rm i}.}}^{0} }}{{{\text{e}}^{0} }}\), where: \({\text{e}}_{{{\rm i}.}}^{0}\) is nationwide employment in industry i and \({\text{e}}^{0}\) is the nationwide employment.

  2. 2.

    See also the following link: www.mcda.it.

  3. 3.

    Greece’s national accounts Gross Value added data by industry NACE rev2. Data are available in from the national statistical office: http://www.statistics.gr/. Greece is divided in thirteen administrative regions (Nuts2 level). The full names of regions in the tables are: N.A. = South Aegean. V.A = North Aegean. I.N = Ionian Islands. Pe = Peloponnese. A.MT = East Macedonia, Thrace. Ip. = Epirus. Kr. = Crete. S.E. = Central Greece. D.M. = Western Macedonia. K.M = Central Macedonia. At. = Attica. Th. = Thessalia. D.E. = Western Greece Full name of industries A = Agriculture, forestry and fishing. (B, C, D, E) = Mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas, steam, air conditioning and water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities. F = Construction. (G, H, I) = Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, transportation and storage, accommodation and food service activities. J = Information and communication. K = Financial and insurance activities. L = Real estate activities. (M, N) = Professional, scientific and technical activities, administrative and support service activities. (O, P, Q) = Public administration and defense, compulsory social security, education, human health and social work activities. (R, S, T, U) = Arts, entertainment, recreation, other service activities, activities of households as employers, undifferentiated goods and services producing activities of households for own use, activities of extraterritorial organizations and bodies.

  4. 4.

    They dominate the region's economy sectors that also go moderate nationally.


  1. Bartels CPA, Van Duijn JJ (1984) Implementing regional economic policy: an analysis of economic and political influences in The Netherlands, Regional Studies, vol 18

  2. Creamer D (1942) Shifts of manufacturing industries. In industrial location and national resources, US Govt. Printing office

  3. Digkoglou P, Papathanasiou J (2018) Ranking the EU countries according to the environmental performance index using PROMETHEE. Int J Sustain Agric Manag Inf IJSAMI 4(3/4):290–305

    Google Scholar 

  4. Dogru T, Sirakaya-Turk E (2017) Engines of tourism’s growth: an examination of efficacy of shift-share regression analysis in South Carolina. Tour Manag 58(February):205–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2016.10.021

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Dunn E (1960) A statistical and analytical technique for regional analysis. In: Papers and proceeding of the regional science association, vol 6

  6. Esteban-Marquillas JM (1972) A reinterpretation of shift share analysis. Reg Urban Econ 2(3):249–261

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Eurostat Statistical Books (2011) Science, technology and innovation in Europe

  8. Goletsis Y, Chletsos M (2011) Measurement of development and regional disparities in Greek Periphery: a multivariate approach. Soc Econ Plan Sci 45:174–183

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Hadjimichalis C (2011) Uneven geographical development and socio-spatial justice and solidarity: European regions after the 2009 financial crisis. Eur Urban Reg Stud 18(3):254–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. How Shift Share Analysis Works (2020) Available in: Property metrics. https://propertymetrics.com/blog/shift-share-analysis/. Accessed 26 Feb 2020

  11. Jones JH (1940) A memorandum on the location of industry. In: The royal commision on the distribution of the industrial population London Appendix I.I London His Majesty’s Stationery Office Cmnd 6135

  12. Katsanevas T (2009) The economy and employment in the 13 Greek regions & regional policy. Stαmouli Publications S.A., Athens

    Google Scholar 

  13. Loveridge S (1995) A practical approach to shift share analysis. J Commun Dev Soc 26(1):110–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Loveridge S, Selting AC (1998) A review and comparison of shift share identities. Int Reg Sci Rev 21(1):39–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Matkovski B, Kleut Ž (2014) Integration processes and rural development policy as factors affecting competitiveness and economic efficiency of agrarian economy of Serbia. In: Birovljev J, Sakal M (eds) Strategic management and decision support systems in strategic management—19th international scientific conference SM2014, Serbia, May, 2014

  16. Moore BC, Rhodes J (1973) Evaluating the effects of British regional economic policy. Econ J 83(1):87–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Polyzos S (31/6/2012) Greece: the regional problem causes imbalances in production potential, Newspaper Greek Opinion

  18. Stilwell FJB (1969) Regional growth and structural adaption. Urban Stud 6:162–178

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Wątróbski J, Jankowski J, Ziemba P, Karczmarczyk A, Zioło M (2019) Generalised framework for multi-criteria method selection. Omega 86:107–124, ISSN 0305-0483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2018.07.004

  20. Zekić S, Kleut Ž, Matkovski B, Đokić D (2018) Determining agricultural impact on environment: evidence for EU-28 and Serbia. Outlook Agric 47(2):116–124. https://doi.org/10.1177/0030727018768016

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexandros Garefalakis.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Xanthos, G., Zopounidis, C., Garefalakis, A. et al. Distinguish regional performance with the use of shift-share analysis and MCDA methods: a gross value added perspective. Oper Res Int J (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12351-020-00582-6

Download citation


  • Shift and share analysis
  • Regional development
  • Regional efficiency
  • Gross value added