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Table 2 Typical radiation exposure, as measured by effective dose, from rest-stress MPI, CCTA, and angiography in women.

From: Myocardial perfusion imaging in women for the evaluation of stable ischemic heart disease—state-of-the-evidence and clinical recommendations

Typical radiation exposure (by Effective Dose) from cardiac imaging in women
  Effective dose, mSv
Annual background exposure ≈3
Invasive coronary angiography ≈7
Rest-stress MPI SPECT
 Dual-isotope MPI SPECT—should be avoided ≈22
 Technetium Tc 99m (NaI camera) ≈11
 Technetium Tc 99m (CZT camera) ≈6
 Stress-only MPI SPECT ≈1–3
Rest-stress MPI PET
 Rubidium Rb82 ≈3
 Nitrogen N13 ≈2
 Overall ≈10
 With dose-reduction techniques <2–5
 Coronary artery calcium scoring ≈1–2
  1. CCTA, coronary computed tomographic angiography; MPI, myocardial perfusion imaging; NaI, sodium iodine; CZT, cadmium zinc telluride; PET, positron emission tomography; SPECT, single-photon emission computed tomography