The effect of chemotherapeutic agents on concomitant colorectal adenomas in patients with advanced colorectal cancer is not clear. We report a case of an enlarged rectal adenoma while achieving a clinical complete response with chemotherapy for an advanced rectal adenocarcinoma. A 78-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of bloody stools. The clinical diagnosis was an advanced lower rectal adenocarcinoma with para-aortic lymph node metastases, and a sessile polyp on the proximal aspect of the rectal tumor. The rectal adenocarcinoma was treated with chemotherapy, including 1 cycle of capecitabin plus oxaliplatin (CapeOX), 22 cycles of tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (S-1) plus irinotecan (IRIS), and 1 cycle of tegafur (UFT) plus calcium folinate (LV). One year after the last course of chemotherapy, colonoscopy showed a scar without visible rectal tumor; CT imaging confirmed no para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The patient had a clinical complete response to chemotherapy. In contrast, the polyp increased in size. The polyp was removed by endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). The pathologic evaluation showed a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with adenoma localized in the mucosa. No recurrence of the advanced adenocarcinoma or intramucosal adenocarcinoma with adenoma occurred for 2 years after EMR. This case indicates the importance of careful surveillance for synchronous adenomas, even in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.
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Conflict of interest
Yasuyuki Nakamura, Fumikazu Koyama, Kohei Morita, Hiroyuki Kuge, Chiho Ohbayashi and Masayuki Sho declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
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Nakamura, Y., Koyama, F., Morita, K. et al. A case of an enlarged rectal adenoma while achieving a clinical complete response with chemotherapy for advanced rectal cancer. Clin J Gastroenterol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12328-020-01169-6
- Colorectal cancer
- Synchronous adenoma
- Complete response