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Table 4 Multivariable-adjusted outcomes, primary analyses

From: Impact of Powered and Tissue-Specific Endoscopic Stapling Technology on Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Lobectomy Procedures: A Retrospective, Observational Study

Outcome Adjusted outcomesa P % difference (powered − manual) (%)
Powered staplers, n = 659 Manual staplers, n = 3100
Hospital LOS 4.87 5.88 < 0.001 − 17.1
Total hospital costs $23,841 $26,052 0.009 − 8.5
 Supply cost $5234 $5672 0.405 − 7.7
 Room and board cost $6737 $7945 0.001 − 15.2
 Operating room cost $7095 $7187 0.735 − 1.3
Discharge to non-homeb 8.2% 7.7% 0.762 6.6
Operating room timec 284 301 0.073 − 5.8
In-hospital complications
 Bleeding/transfusion 8.5% 16.0% < 0.001 − 46.8
 Transfusion 5.4% 10.9% 0.002 − 50.6
 APHA 4.3% 6.8% 0.097 − 36.8
 Air leak complicationsd 22.6% 25.3% 0.324 − 10.5
 Pneumonia 4.1% 3.5% 0.569 19.4
 Infection 4.4% 3.8% 0.612 16.5
All-cause readmissione
 ≤ 30 days 3.1% 4.4% 0.217 − 30.5
 ≤ 60 days 5.3% 7.3% 0.159 − 27.1
 ≤ 90 days 7.5% 9.8% 0.171 − 23.5
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subgroup analysesf
 Bleeding/transfusion 8.6% 18.9% 0.002 − 54.4%
 Transfusion 6.2% 13.2% 0.011 − 53.2%
 APHA 4.1% 7.9% 0.113 − 48.2%
  1. APHA acute posthemorrhagic anemia, LOS length of stay
  2. aRecycled prediction method; The following outcome models had questionable fit due to estimated G matrix not positive definite: all-cause readmission at 30, 60, and 90 days
  3. bDischarge to a non-home setting (e.g., skilled nursing facility, intermediate care facility) vs. discharge to home with or without home healthcare
  4. cIn minutes; n with operating room time data = 542 powered; 2711 manual; operating room time values trimmed to fall between 30 min and 24 h
  5. dComposite of air leak and/or pneumothorax
  6. e30-, 60-, and 90-day all-cause readmissions to the hospital in which the VATS lobectomy procedure was performed; N with hospital-level follow-up data for at least 30 days = 624 powered; 3018 manual; for at least 60 days = 581 powered; 2942 manual; for at least 90 days = 545 powered; 2866 manual
  7. fComprising chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied disorders, according to the ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM taxonomies; n = 324 powered; 1368 manual