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Table 3 Hospital and provider characteristics, primary analyses

From: Impact of Powered and Tissue-Specific Endoscopic Stapling Technology on Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Lobectomy Procedures: A Retrospective, Observational Study

  Powered staplers, n = 659 Manual staplers, n = 3100 Std. diff.a
US geographic region, n (%)
 South 557 (84.5) 1445 (46.6) 0.870
 Midwest 4 (0.6) 174 (5.6) 0.291
 Northeast 16 (2.4) 999 (32.2) 0.856
 West 82 (12.4) 482 (15.5) 0.090
Rural, n (%) 92 (14.0) 172 (5.5) 0.286
Non-teaching, n (%) 297 (45.1) 1468 (47.4) 0.046
Cost type: cost-to-charge ratiob, n (%) 58 (8.8) 756 (24.4) 0.428
Bed Size
 0–299 108 (16.4) 558 (18.0) 0.043
 300–399 87 (13.2) 467 (15.1) 0.053
 400–499 124 (18.8) 670 (21.6) 0.070
 ≥ 500 340 (51.6) 1405 (45.3) 0.126
Surgical specialty, n (%)
 Thoracic 542 (82.2) 1869 (60.3) 0.500
 Cardiovascular 75 (11.4) 791 (25.5) 0.370
 General 6 (0.9) 246 (7.9) 0.347
 Other 36 (5.5) 194 (6.3) 0.034
Monthly surgical volume ratioc, n (%)
 ≤ 0.75 77 (11.7) 765 (24.7) 0.342
 ≥ 0.75 < 2 106 (16.1) 955 (30.8) 0.353
 ≥ 2 < 4 225 (34.1) 1082 (34.9) 0.016
 ≥ 4 251 (38.1) 298 (9.6) 0.708
  1. SD standard deviation, Std. diff. standardized difference
  2. aStandardized difference > 0.10 indicates imbalance across the cohorts
  3. bProcedural costing is reference
  4. cRatio of the number of VATS lobectomy procedures to the number of months the patient’s hospital was present in database during the study period