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Table 2 Patient clinical characteristics, primary analyses

From: Impact of Powered and Tissue-Specific Endoscopic Stapling Technology on Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery Lobectomy Procedures: A Retrospective, Observational Study

  Powered staplers, n = 659 Manual staplers, n = 3100 Std. diff.a
Primary diagnosis of cancer, n (%) 601 (91.2) 2934 (94.6) 0.135
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Cancer (metastatic) 96 (14.6) 418 (13.5) 0.031
 Cerebrovascular disease 16 (2.4) 82 (2.7) 0.014
 COPDb 324 (49.2) 1368 (44.1) 0.101
 Coagulopathy 13 (2.0) 53 (1.7) 0.020
 Congestive heart failure 33 (5.0) 138 (4.5) 0.026
 Connective tissue/rheumatic disease 23 (3.5) 108 (3.5) 0.000
 Depression 76 (11.5) 389 (12.6) 0.031
 Diabetes (w/complications) 8 (1.2) 49 (1.6) 0.031
 Diabetes (w/o complications) 110 (16.7) 547 (17.7) 0.025
 Hypertension (complicated) 44 (6.7) 189 (6.1) 0.024
 Hypertension (uncomplicated) 392 (59.5) 1723 (55.6) 0.079
 Hypothyroidism 80 (12.1) 395 (12.7) 0.018
 Liver disease (mild) 15 (2.3) 60 (1.9) 0.024
 Myocardial infarction 40 (6.1) 189 (6.1) 0.001
 Neurological disorders 16 (2.4) 64 (2.1) 0.025
 Obesityc 94 (14.3) 324 (10.5) 0.116
 Peripheral vascular disease 56 (8.5) 275 (8.9) 0.013
 Renal disease 45 (6.8) 208 (6.7) 0.005
 Valvular disease 27 (4.1) 133 (4.3) 0.010
 Weight loss 12 (1.8) 64 (2.1) 0.018
CCI, n (%)    
 0–1 70 (10.6) 247 (8.0) 0.091
 2 153 (23.2) 872 (28.1) 0.113
 3 189 (28.7) 908 (29.3) 0.013
 4 89 (13.5) 365 (11.8) 0.052
 5+ 158 (24.0) 708 (22.8) 0.027
Day of procedured, mean (SD) 1.0 (0.2) 1.1 (0.6) 0.134
Concomitant wedge resection, n (%) 57 (8.6) 265 (8.5) 0.004
Concomitant segmentectomy, n (%) 4 (0.6) 13 (0.4) 0.026
Robot-assisted procedure, n (%) 205 (31.1) 284 (9.2) 0.569
  1. CCI Charlson comorbidity index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, SD standard deviation, Std. diff. standardized difference
  2. aStandardized difference > 0.10 indicates imbalance across the cohorts
  3. bComprising chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied disorders, according to the ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM taxonomies
  4. cBased on ICD-9-CM/ICD-10-CM coding generally corresponding to body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2
  5. dDay on which VATS lobectomy procedure was performed; value of 1 indicates day of admission