Advances in Therapy

, Volume 34, Issue 10, pp 2181–2198 | Cite as

The Impact of Histologic Phenotype in the Treatment of Sinonasal Cancer

  • Fernando López
  • Valerie J. Lund
  • Carlos Suárez
  • Carl H. Snyderman
  • Nabil F. Saba
  • K. Thomas Robbins
  • Vincent Vander Poorten
  • Primož Strojan
  • William M. Mendenhall
  • Alessandra Rinaldo
  • Alfio Ferlito
Review

Abstract

The management of sinonasal cancer is a challenge due to its low occurrence and anatomical and significant diversity of histological types. The therapeutic modality used should be tailored individually according to the histology, tumour stage, molecular profile and previous treatments. The clinical management of sinonasal cancer has improved greatly owing to developments in endoscopic surgery and precision radiotherapy. Complete surgical resection is the mainstay of sinonasal malignancies' management but multimodality therapy is associated with improved outcomes in certain histologies. The recognition of various histological types with biological behaviours more suitable for non-surgical modalities has allowed treatment protocols to become more tailored to the disease. In this review we aim to describe and to summarise the current data guiding the management of sinonasal cancer with emphasis on phenotypic variation.

Keywords

Endoscopic surgery Histology Oncology Paranasal cavities Radiotherapy Sinonasal cancer 

Notes

Acknowledgements

No funding or sponsorship was received for this study or publication of this article. All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this manuscript, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole and have given final approval for the version to be published. This article was written by members of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group (http://www.IHNSG.com).

Disclosures

Fernando López, Valerie J. Lund, Carlos Suárez, Carl H. Snyderman, Nabil F. Saba, K. Thomas Robbins, Vincent Vander Poorten, Primož Strojan, William M. Mendenhall, Alessandra Rinaldo and Alfio Ferlito have nothing to disclose.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

This article is based on previously conducted studies and does not involve any new studies of human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

  1. 1.
    Turner JH, Reh DD. Incidence and survival in patients with sinonasal cancer: a historical analysis of population-based data. Head Neck. 2012;34:877–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lewis JS Jr. Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: a review with emphasis on emerging histologic subtypes and the role of human papillomavirus. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10:60–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic. Risks to humans. Arsenic, metals, fibres, and dusts. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2012;100:11–465.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Peters S, et al. International comparisons of the incidence and mortality of sinonasal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37:770–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sanghvi S, Khan MN, Patel NR, Yeldandi S, Baredes S, Eloy JA. Epidemiology of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma: a comprehensive analysis of 4,994 patients. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:76–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lund VJ, Howard D, Wei W, editors. Tumors of the nose, sinuses and nasopharynx. Thieme: Stuttgart; 2014.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alvarez I, Suárez C, Rodrigo JP, Núñez F, Caminero MJ. Prognostic factors in paranasal sinus cancer. Am J Otolaryngol. 1995;16:109–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    El-Naggar AK, Chan JKC, Grandis JR, Takata T, Slootweg PJ, editors. WHO classification of head and neck tumours. Lyon: IARC; 2017.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thompson LDR, Franchi A. New tumor entities in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization classification of head and neck tumors: nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and skull base. Virchows Arch. 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00428-017-2116-0 (Epub ahead of print).
  10. 10.
    Mehrad M, Chernock RD, El-Mofty SK, Lewis JS Jr. Diagnostic discrepancies in mandatory slide review of extradepartmental head and neck cases: experience at a large academic center. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2015;139:1539–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Robin TP, Jones BL, Gordon OM, et al. A comprehensive comparative analysis of treatment modalities for sinonasal malignancies. Cancer. 2017. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30686 (Epub ahead of print).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Resto VA, Chan AW, Deschler DG, Lin DT. Extent of surgery in the management of locally advanced sinonasal malignancies. Head Neck. 2008;30:222–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rosen A, Vokes EE, Scher N, Haraf D, Weichselbaum RR, Panje WR. Locoregionally advanced paranasal sinus carcinoma. Favorable survival with multimodality therapy. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:743–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee MM, Vokes EE, Rosen A, Witt ME, Weichselbaum RR, Haraf DJ. Multimodality therapy in advanced paranasal sinus carcinoma: superior long-term results. Cancer J Sci Am. 1999;5:219–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jansen EP, Keus RB, Hilgers FJ, Haas RL, Tan IB, Bartelink H. Does the combination of radiotherapy and debulking surgery favor survival in paranasal sinus carcinoma? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2000;48:27–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Goffart Y, Jorissen M, Daele J, et al. Minimally invasive endoscopic management of malignant sinonasal tumours. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 2000;54:221–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Castelnuovo P, Battaglia P, Turri-Zanoni M, et al. Endoscopic endonasal surgery for malignancies of the anterior cranial base. World Neurosurg. 2014;82:22–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Snyderman CH, Carrau RL, Kassam AB, Zanation A, et al. Endoscopic skull base surgery: principles of endonasal oncological surgery. J Surg Oncol. 2008;15(97):658–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lund VJ, Stammberger H, Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P, Beal T, Beham A, et al. European position paper on endoscopic management of tumours of the nose, paranasal sinuses and skull base. Rhinol Suppl. 2010;1:1–143.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rimmer J, Lund V, Beale T, Howard D, Wei W. Olfactory neuroblastoma—a 35 year experience and suggested follow-up protocol. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:1542–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lund V, Wei W. Endoscopic surgery for malignant sinonasal tumors: an eighteen year experience. Rhinology. 2015;53:204–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lund V, Chisholm E, Takes R, et al. Evidence for treatment strategies in sinonasal adenocarcinoma. Head Neck. 2012;34:1168–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rawal RB, Farzal Z, Federspiel JJ, Sreenath SB, Thorp BD, Zanation AM. Endoscopic resection of sinonasal malignancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;155:376–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Su SY, Kupferman ME, DeMonte F, Levine NB, Raza SM, Hanna EY. Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers. Curr Oncol Rep. 2014;16:369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Roxbury CR, Ishii M, Richmon JD, Blitz AM, Reh DD, Gallia GL. Endonasal endoscopic surgery in the management of sinonasal and anterior skull base malignancies. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10:13–22.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Komotar RJ, Starke RM, Raper DM, Anand VK, Schwartz TH. Endoscopic skull base surgery: a comprehensive comparison with open transcranial approaches. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:637–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castelnuovo P, Turri-Zanoni M, Battaglia P, Antognoni P, Bossi P, Locatelli D. Sinonasal malignancies of anterior skull base: histology-driven treatment strategies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2016;49:183–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nicolai P, Castelnuovo P, Bolzoni Villaret A. Endoscopic resection of sinonasal malignancies. Curr Oncol Rep. 2011;13:138–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Snyderman CH, Pant H, Carrau RL, Prevedello D, Gardner P, Kassam AB. What are the limits of endoscopic sinus surgery?: the expanded endonasal approach to the skull base. Keio J Med. 2009;58:152–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Howard DJ, Lund VJ, Wei WI. Craniofacial resection for tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: a 25-year experience. Head Neck. 2006;28:867–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Camp S, Van Gerven L, Poorten VV, et al. Long-term follow-up of 123 patients with adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal tract treated with endoscopic resection and postoperative radiation therapy. Head Neck. 2016;38:294–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dulguerov P, Jacobsen MS, Allal AS, Lehmann W, Calcaterra T. Nasal and paranasal sinus carcinoma: are we making progress? A series of 220 patients and a systematic review. Cancer. 2001;92:3012–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lund V, Howard D, Wei W, Spittle M. Olfactory neuroblastoma: past, present and future? Laryngoscope. 2003;113:502–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parsons JT, Mendenhall WM, Mancuso AA, Cassisi NJ, Million RR. Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1988;14:11–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Le QT, Fu KK, Kaplan M, Terris DJ, Fee WE, Goffinet DR. Treatment of maxillary sinus carcinoma: a comparison of the 1997 and 1977 American Joint Committee on Cancer staging systems. Cancer. 1999;86:1700–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen NX, Chen L, Wang JL, et al. A clinical study of multimodal treatment for orbital organ preservation in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2016;46:727–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hoppe BS, Stegman LD, Zelefsky MJ, et al. Treatment of nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancer with modern radiotherapy techniques in the postoperative setting–the MSKCC experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:691–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Askoxylakis V, Hegenbarth P, Timke C, et al. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors: a single center long term clinical analysis. Radiat Oncol. 2016;11:17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Russo AL, Adams JA, Weyman EA, et al. Long-term outcomes after proton beam therapy for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;95:368–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dagan R, Bryant C, Li Z, et al. Outcomes of sinonasal cancer treated with proton therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;95:377–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Daly ME, Chen AM, Bucci MK, et al. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67:151–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dirix P, Nuyts S, Vanstraelen B, et al. Post-operative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Radiother Oncol. 2007;85:385–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dirix P, Vanstraelen B, Jorissen M, Vander Poorten V, Nuyts S. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for sinonasal cancer: improved outcome compared to conventional radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78:998–1004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dirix P, Nuyts S, Geussens Y, et al. Malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: long-term outcome with conventional or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:1042–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ramaekers BL, Pijls-Johannesma M, Joore MA, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of radiotherapy in various head and neck cancers: comparing photons, carbon-ions and protons. Cancer Treat Rev. 2011;37:185–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Patel SH, Wang Z, Wong WW, et al. Charged particle therapy versus photon therapy for paranasal sinus and nasal cavity malignant diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15:1027–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chopra S, Kamdar DP, Cohen DS, et al. Outcomes of nonsurgical management of locally advanced carcinomas of the sinonasal cavity. Laryngoscope. 2017;127:855–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Spratt D, Cabanillas R, Lee NY. The paranasal sinuses. In: Lee NJ, Lu JJ, editors. Target volume delineation and field setup: a practical guide for conformal and intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Berlín: Springer; 2013. p. 45–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Khademi B, Moradi A, Hoseini S, Mohammadianpanah M. Malignant neoplasms of the sinonasal tract: report of 71 patients and literature review and analysis. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;13:191–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scangas GA, Eloy JA, Lin DT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of sinonasal and ventral skull base malignancies. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2017;50:433–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bossi P, Saba NF, Vermorken JB, et al. The role of systemic therapy in the management of sinonasal cancer: a critical review. Cancer Treat Rev. 2015;41:836–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Licitra L, Suardi S, Bossi P, et al. Prediction of TP53 status for primary cisplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin chemotherapy in ethmoid sinus intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:4901–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hanna EY, Cardenas AD, DeMonte F, et al. Induction chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137:78–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Noronha V, Patil VM, Joshi A, et al. Induction chemotherapy in technically unresectable locally advanced carcinoma of maxillary sinus. Chemother Res Pract. 2014;2014:487872.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Patil VM, Joshi A, Noronha V, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced and borderline resectable nonsquamous sinonasal tumors (esthesioneuroblastoma and sinonasal tumor with neuroendocrine differentiation). Int J Surg Oncol. 2016;2016:6923730.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Katz TS, Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Villaret DB. Malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Head Neck. 2002;24:821–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Paré A, Blanchard P, Rosellini S, et al. Outcomes of multimodal management for sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2017.05.006 (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ock CY, Keam B, Kim TM, et al. Induction chemotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity: a role in organ preservation. Korean J Intern Med. 2016;31:570–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kang JH, Cho SH, Kim JP, et al. Treatment outcomes between concurrent chemoradiotherapy and combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy in stage III and IV maxillary sinus cancer: multi-institutional retrospective analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012;70:1717–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Samant S, van den Brekel MW, Kies MS, et al. Concurrent chemoradiation for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck. 2012;34:1263–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Chen AM, Daly ME, Bucci MK, et al. Carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated with radiotherapy at a single institution over five decades: are we making improvement? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69:141–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gangl K, Nemec S, Altorjai G, Pammer J, Grasl MC, Erovic BM. Prognostic survival value of retropharyngeal lymph node involvement in sinonasal tumors: a retrospective, descriptive, and exploratory study. Head Neck. 2017;39:1421–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fernández JM, Santaolalla F, Del Rey AS, Martínez-Ibargüen A, González A. Iriarte MR Preliminary study of the lymphatic drainage system of the nose and paranasal sinuses and its role in detection of sentinel metastatic nodes. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:566–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Zanation AM, Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, et al. When, how and why to treat the neck in patients with esthesioneuroblastoma: a review. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1667–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Day TA, Beas RA, Schlosser RJ, et al. Management of paranasal sinus malignancy. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2005;6:3–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Donhuijsen K, Kollecker I, Petersen P, Gassler N, Schulze J, Schroeder HG. Metastatic behaviour of sinonasal adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type (ITAC). Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273:649–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ansa B, Goodman M, Ward K, et al. Paranasal sinus squamous cell carcinoma incidence and survival based on surveillance, epidemiology, and end results data, 1973 to 2009. Cancer. 2013;119:2602–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Llorente JL, López F, Suárez C, Hermsen MA. Sinonasal carcinoma: clinical, pathological, genetic and therapeutic advances. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2014;11:460–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    de Almeida JR, Su SY, Koutourousiou M, Guimaraes Filho V, et al. Endonasal endoscopic surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavities and skull base: oncologic outcomes based on treatment strategy and tumor etiology. Head Neck. 2014;37:1163–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lisan Q, Kolb F, Temam S, Tao Y, Janot F, Moya-Plana A. Management of orbital invasion in sinonasal malignancies. Head Neck. 2016;38:1650–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Reyes C, Mason E, Solares CA, Bush C, Carrau R. To preserve or not to preserve the orbit in paranasal sinus neoplasms: a meta-analysis. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2015;76:122–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Suárez C, Llorente JL, Fernández De León R, Maseda E, López A. Prognostic factors in sinonasal tumors involving the anterior skull base. Head Neck. 2004;26:136–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Mirghani H, Hartl D, Mortuaire G, et al. Nodal recurrence of sinonasal cancer: does the risk of cervical relapse justify a prophylactic neck treatment? Oral Oncol. 2013;49:374–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jeremic B, Nguyen-Tan PF, Bamberg M. Elective neck irradiation in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a review. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002;128:235–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Dubal PM, Bhojwani A, Patel TD, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus: a population-based analysis. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:399–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nazar G, Rodrigo JP, Llorente JL, Baragaño L, Suárez C. Prognostic factors of maxillary sinus malignancies. Am J Rhinol. 2004;18:233–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lewis JS Jr, Westra WH, Thompson LD, et al. The sinonasal tract: another potential “hot spot” for carcinomas with transcriptionally-active human papillomavirus. Head Neck Pathol. 2014;8:241–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hanna E, DeMonte F, Ibrahim S, Roberts D, Levine N, Kupferman M. Endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers with and without craniotomy: oncologic results. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;135:1219–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kano S, Hayashi R, Homma A, et al. Effect of local extension sites on survival in locally advanced maxillary sinus cancer. Head Neck. 2014;36:1567–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Vazquez A, Khan MN, Blake DM, Patel TD, Baredes S, Eloy JA. Sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma and the prognostic implications of its histologic variants: a population-based study. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5:85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nicolai P, Battaglia P, Bignami M, et al. Endoscopic surgery for malignant tumors of the sinonasal tract and adjacent skull base: a 10-year experience. Am J Rhinol. 2008;22:308–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Shipchandler TZ, Batra PS, Citardi MJ, Bolger WE, Lanza DC. Outcomes for endoscopic resection of sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:1983–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cantu G, Solero CL, Mariani L, et al. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid sinus in wood and leather workers: a retrospective study of 153 cases. Head Neck. 2011;33:535–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Antognoni P, Turri-Zanoni M, Gottardo S, et al. Endoscopic resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy for sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinoma: retrospective analysis of 30 consecutive patients. Head Neck. 2015;37:677–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vergez S, du Mayne MD, Coste A, et al. Multicenter study to assess endoscopic resection of 159 sinonasal adenocarcinomas. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21:1384–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mortuaire G, Leroy X, Vandenhende-Szymanski C, Chevalier D, Thisse AS. Comparison of endoscopic and external resections for sinonasal instestinal-type adenocarcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273:4343–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    de Gabory L, Maunoury A, Maurice-Tison S, et al. Long-term single-center results of management of ethmoid adenocarcinoma: 95 patients over 28 years. Ann Surg Oncol. 2010;17:1127–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Turri-Zanoni M, Battaglia P, Lambertoni A, et al. Treatment strategies for primary early-stage sinonasal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective bi-institutional case-control study. J Surg Oncol. 2015;112:561–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bhayani MK, Yilmaz T, Sweeney A, et al. Sinonasal adenocarcinoma: a 16-year experience at a single institution. Head Neck. 2014;36:1490–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Holmila R, Bornholdt J, Heikkila P, et al. Mutations in TP53 tumor suppressor gene in wood dust-related sinonasal cancer. Int J Cancer. 2010;127:578–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Choussy O, Ferron C, Vedrine PO, et al. Adenocarcinoma of Ethmoid: a GETTEC retrospective multicenter study of 418 cases. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:437–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Knegt PP, Ah-See KW, vd Velden LA, Kerrebijn J. Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoidal sinus complex: surgical debulking and topical fluorouracil may be the optimal treatment. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001;127:141–6.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Donhuijsen K, Kollecker I, Petersen P, Gaßler N, Wolf J, Schroeder HG. Clinical and morphological aspects of adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type in the inner nose: a retrospective multicenter analysis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273:3207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nicolai P, Schreiber A, Bolzoni Villaret A, et al. Intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the ethmoid: outcomes of a treatment regimen based on endoscopic surgery with or without radiotherapy. Head Neck. 2016;38:996–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Coca-Pelaz A, Rodrigo JP, Bradley PJ, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck-An update. Oral Oncol. 2015;51:652–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Husain Q, Kanumuri VV, Svider PF, et al. Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma: systematic review of survival and treatment strategies. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;148:29–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Amit M, Binenbaum Y, Sharma K, et al. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. A meta-analysis. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2013;74:118–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Michel G, Joubert M, Delemazure AS, Espitalier F, Durand N, Malard O. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses: retrospective series and review of the literature. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2013;130:257–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Lupinetti AD, Roberts DB, Williams MD, et al. Sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Cancer. 2007;110:2726–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Iseli TA, Karnell LH, Graham SM, et al. Role of radiotherapy in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. J Laryngol Otol. 2009;123:1137–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Linton OR, Moore MG, Brigance JS, Summerlin DJ, McDonald MW. Proton therapy for head and neck adenoid cystic carcinoma: initial clinical outcomes. Head Neck. 2015;37:117–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Takagi M, Demizu Y, Hashimoto N, et al. Treatment outcomes of particle radiotherapy using protons or carbon ions as a single-modality therapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck. Radiother Oncol. 2014;113:364–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dillon PM, Chakraborty S, Moskaluk CA, Joshi PJ, Thomas CY. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: a review of recent advances, molecular targets, and clinical trials. Head Neck. 2016;38:620–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Schoenfeld JD, Sher DJ, Norris CM Jr, et al. Salivary gland tumors treated with adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012;82:308–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bishop JA, Devaney KO, Barnes L, et al. Cervical lymph node metastasis in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sinonasal tract, nasopharynx, lacrimal glands, and external auditory canal: a collective international review. J Laryngol Otol. 2016;130:1093–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Dulguerov P, Allal AS, Calcaterra TC. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis and review. Lancet Oncol. 2001;2:683–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Herr MW, Sethi RK, Meier JC, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: an update on the Massachusetts Eye and Ear infirmary and Massachusetts General Hospital experience with craniofacial resection, proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014;75:58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Ow TJ, Bell D, Kupferman ME, Demonte F, Hanna EY. Esthesioneuroblastoma. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2013;24:51–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schwartz JS, Palmer JN, Adappa ND. Contemporary management of esthesioneuroblastoma. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;24:63–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Castelnuovo P, Bignami M, Delù G, Battaglia P, Bignardi M, Dallan I. Endonasal endoscopic resection and radiotherapy in olfactory neuroblastoma: our experience. Head Neck. 2007;29:845–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Tajudeen B, Adappa N, Kuan E, et al. Smell preservation following endoscopic unilateral resection of esthesioneuroblastoma: a multi-institutional experience. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2016;6:1047–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Devaiah AK, Andreoli MT. Treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma: a 16-year meta-analysis of 361 patients. Laryngoscope. 2009;119:1412–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fu TS, Monteiro E, Muhanna N, Goldstein DP, de Almeida JR. Comparison of outcomes for open versus endoscopic approaches for olfactory neuroblastoma: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis. Head Neck. 2016;38:E2306–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Van Gompel JJ, Giannini C, Olsen KD, et al. Long-term outcome of esthesioneuroblastoma: hyams grade predicts patient survival. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2012;73:331–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Chao KS, Kaplan C, Simpson JR, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the impact of treatment modality. Head Neck. 2001;23:749–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Banuchi VE, Dooley L, Lee NY, et al. Patterns of regional and distant metastasis in esthesioneuroblastoma. Laryngoscope. 2016;126:1556–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ferlito A, Rinaldo A, Rhys-Evans PH. Contemporary clinical commentary: esthesioneuroblastoma: an update on management of the neck. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:1935–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nalavenkata SB, Sacks R, Adappa ND, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma: fate of the neck—a long-term multicenter retrospective study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:383–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Rinaldo A, Ferlito A, Shaha AR, Wei WI, Lund VJ. Esthesioneuroblastoma and cervical lymph node metastases: clinical and therapeutic implications. Acta Otolaryngol. 2002;122:215–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Patel SG, Singh B, Stambuk HE, et al. Craniofacial surgery for esthesioneuroblastoma: report of an international collaborative study. J NeurolSurg B Skull Base. 2012;73:208–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lund VJ, Chisholm EJ, Howard DJ, Wei WI. Sinonasal malignant melanoma: an analysis of 115 cases assessing outcomes of surgery, postoperative radiotherapy and endoscopic resection. Rhinology. 2012;50:203–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Turri-Zanoni M, Medicina D, Lombardi D, et al. Sinonasal mucosal melanoma: molecular profile and therapeutic implications from a series of 32 cases. Head Neck. 2013;35:1066–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Plavc G, But-Hadžić J, Aničin A, Lanišnik B, Didanović V, Strojan P. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: a population-based study from Slovenia, 1985-2013. Radiat Oncol. 2016;14(11):137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    López F, Rodrigo JP, Cardesa A, et al. Update on primary head and neck mucosal melanoma. Head Neck. 2016;38:147–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Starek I, Koranda P, Benes P. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: a new perspective in head and neck mucosal melanoma? Melanoma Res. 2006;16:423–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Baptista P, Garcia Velloso MJ, Salvinelli F, Casale M. Radioguided surgical strategy in mucosal melanoma of the nasal cavity. Clin Nucl Med. 2008;33:14–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sun CZ, Li QL, Hu ZD, Jiang YE, Song M, Yang AK. Treatment and prognosis in sinonasal mucosal melanoma: a retrospective analysis of 65 patients from a single cancer center. Head Neck. 2014;36:675–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Prasad ML, Patel SG, Huvos AG, Shah JP, Busam KJ. Primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck: a proposal for microstaging localized, Stage I (lymph node-negative) tumors. Cancer. 2004;100:1657–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Amit M, Tam S, Abdelmeguid A, et al. Mutation status among patients with sinonasal mucosal melanoma and its impact on survival Br J Cancer. 2017;116:1564–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Chraybi M, Abd Alsamad I, Copie-Bergman C, et al. Oncogene abnormalities in a series of primary melanomas of the sinonasal tract: nRAS mutations and cyclin D1 amplification are more frequent than KIT or BRAF mutations. Hum Pathol. 2013;44:1902–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Reiersen DA, Pahilan ME, Devaiah AK. Meta-analysis of treatment outcomes for sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012;147:7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Mourad WF, Hauerstock D, Shourbaji RA, et al. Trimodality management of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma and review of the literature. Am J Clin Oncol. 2013;36:584–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Bell D, Hanna EY. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: morphological heterogeneity, diagnosis, management and biological markers. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2013;13:285–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Levine PA, Frierson HF Jr, Stewart FM, Mills SE, Fechner RE, Cantrell RW. Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: a distinctive and highly aggressive neoplasm. Laryngoscope. 1987;97:905–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    López F, Suárez V, Vivanco B, Suárez C, Llorente JL. Current management of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Rhinology. 2015;53:212–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Al-Mamgani A, van Rooij P, Mehilal R, Tans L, Levendag PC. Combined-modality treatment improved outcome in sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma: single-institutional experience of 21 patients and review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:293–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Likhacheva A, Rosenthal DI, Hanna E, Kupferman M, Demonte F, El-Naggar AK. Sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma: impact of differentiation status on response and outcome. Head Neck Oncol. 2011;3:32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Mitchell EH, Diaz A, Yilmaz T, et al. Multimodality treatment for sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. Head Neck. 2012;34:1372–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Patel TD, Vazquez A, Dubal PM, Baredes S, Liu JK, Eloy JA. Sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma: a population-based analysis of incidence and survival. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5:448–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bell D, Hanna EY, Weber RS, et al. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal region. Head Neck. 2016;38:2259–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Babin E, Rouleau V, Vedrine PO, et al. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. J Laryngol Otol. 2006;120:289–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    van der Laan TP, Bij HP, van Hemel BM, et al. The importance of multimodality therapy in the treatment of sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;270:2565–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Szablewski V, Neuville A, Terrier P, et al. Adult sinonasal soft tissue sarcoma: analysis of 48 cases from the French Sarcoma Group database. Laryngoscope. 2015;125:615–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Meccariello G, Merks JH, Pieters BR, et al. Endoscopic management of Ewing’s sarcoma of ethmoid sinus within the AMORE framework: a new paradigm. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77:139–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Potratz J, Dirksen U, Jürgens H, Craft A. Ewing sarcoma: clinical state-of-the-art. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2012;29:1–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Thompson LD. Small round blue cell tumors of the sinonasal tract: a differential diagnosis approach. Mod Pathol. 2017;30:1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Knott PD, Gannon FH, Thompson LD. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the sinonasal tract: a clinicopathological study of 13 cases with a review of the literature. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:783–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Khan MN, Husain Q, Kanumuri VV. Adenocarcinoma of the ethmoidal sinus complex: surgical debulking and topical fluorouracil may be the optimal treatment. Management of sinonasal chondrosarcoma: a systematic review of 161 patients. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2013;3:670–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Peng KA, Kita AE, Suh JD, Bhuta SM, Wang MB. Sinonasal lymphoma: case series and review of the literature. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014;4:670–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Patel TD, Vázquez A, Choudhary MM, Kam D, Baredes S, Eloy JA. Sinonasal extramedullary plasmacytoma: a population-based incidence and survival analysis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5:862–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    López F, Devaney KO, Hanna EY, Rinaldo A, Ferlito A. Metastases to nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Head Neck. 2016;38:1847–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bishop JA. Recently described neoplasms of the sinonasal tract. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2016;33:62–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Bishop JA, Ogawa T, Stelow EB, et al. Human papillomavirus-related carcinoma with adenoid cystic-like features: a peculiar variant of head and neck cancer restricted to the sinonasal tract. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:836–44.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bishop JA, Westra WH. NUT midline carcinomas of the sinonasal tract. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:1216–21.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Stathis A, Zucca E, Bekradda M, et al. Clinical response of carcinomas harboring the BRD4-NUT oncoprotein to the targeted bromodomain inhibitor OTX015/MK-8628. Cancer Discov. 2016;6:492–500.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Agaimy A, Weichert W. SMARCA4-deficient sinonasal carcinoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2017. doi: 10.1007/s12105-017-0783-4 (Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Wang X, Bledsoe KL, Graham RP, et al. PAX3-MAML3 fusion in biphenotypic sinonasal sarcoma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:666–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lewis JT, Oliveira AM, Nascimento AG, et al. Low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features: a clinicopathologic analysis of 28 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:517–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kaplan DJ, Kim JH, Wang E, Snyderman C. Prognostic indicators for salvage surgery of recurrent sinonasal malignancy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154:104–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Healthcare Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando López
    • 1
    • 2
  • Valerie J. Lund
    • 3
  • Carlos Suárez
    • 2
  • Carl H. Snyderman
    • 4
  • Nabil F. Saba
    • 5
  • K. Thomas Robbins
    • 6
  • Vincent Vander Poorten
    • 7
  • Primož Strojan
    • 8
  • William M. Mendenhall
    • 9
  • Alessandra Rinaldo
    • 10
  • Alfio Ferlito
    • 11
  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyHospital Universitario Central de AsturiasOviedoSpain
  2. 2.Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, University of Oviedo, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias and CIBERONC, ISCIIIOviedoSpain
  3. 3.Professorial Unit, Ear InstituteUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of OtolaryngologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA
  5. 5.Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyThe Winship Cancer Institute of Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  6. 6.Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgerySouthern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA
  7. 7.Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and Department of Oncology, Section Head and Neck Oncology, University Hospitals LeuvenKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  8. 8.Department of Radiation OncologyInstitute of OncologyLjubljanaSlovenia
  9. 9.Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA
  10. 10.University of Udine School of MedicineUdineItaly
  11. 11.Coordinator of the International Head and Neck Scientific GroupPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations