In hybrid nature that results from a random mix of technological infrastructures and natural ecosystems, environmental fundamentals (spatial patterns and resources, complexity, uncertainty, information, and meaning) are modified producing dramatic effects on the semiosis of several species. Human intrusion in ecosystems creates new spatial configurations that have a reduced ecological complexity when compared with systems less affected by human manipulation. This causes cascading effects on other environmental fundamentals. F.i., systems that face a low complexity, are more exposed to changes that in turn can reduce the performances of individual species due to a higher level of uncertainty. The flux of information could be apparently maintained in hybrid nature when some natural patterns and processes are replaced by human artifacts and associated dynamics, but the process of signification (meaning) could be strongly modified. The strict contact between people and wild organisms in hybrid nature requires new types of strategies to guarantee the continuation of the natural dynamic of populations and communities. Rural sanctuaries are proposed as one of the possible models on which to invest in order to harmonize the technological and natural processes with the goal to assure a multiscale sustainability.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Adams, L. W., & Geis, A. D. (1983). Effects of roads on small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 403–415.
Antze, B., & Koper, N. (2018). Noisy anthropogenic infrastructure interferes with alarm responses in Savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Royal Society Open Science, 5. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.172168.
Aronson, M. F. J., Handel, S. N., La Puma, I. P., & Clemants, S. E. (2015). Urbanization promotes non-native woody species and diverse plant assemblages in the New York metropolitan region. Urban Ecosystems, 18, 31–45.
Au, W. W. L., & Green, M. (2000). Acoustic interaction of humpback whales and whale watching boats. Marine Environmental Research, 49, 469–481.
Barbieri, M. (2019). A general model on the origin of biological codes. BioSystems, 181, 11-19.
Bateson, G. (1970). Form, substance, and difference. General Semantic Bulletin, 37, 5–13.
Becker, D. J., Streicher, D. G., & Altizer, S. (2015). Linking anthropogenic resources to wildlife-pathogen dynamics: A review and meta-analysis. Ecology Letters, 18, 483–495.
Bernardino, J., Bevanger, K., Barrientos, R., Dwyer, J. F., Marques, A. T., Marques, A. T., et al. (2018). Bird collisions with power lines: State of the art and priority areas for research. Biological Conservation, 222, 1–13.
Blondel, J. (2006). The “design” of Mediterranean landscapes: A millennial story of human and ecological systems during the historic period. Human Ecology, 34, 713–729.
Blondel, J., & Aronson, J. (1999). Biology and wildlife of the Mediterranean region. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bremer, L. L., & Farley, K. A. (2010). Does plantation forestry restore biodiversity or create green desert? A synthesis of the effects of land-use transition on plant species richness. Biodiversity and Conservation, 19, 3893–3915.
Busse, M.D., Hubbert, K.R., & Moghaddas, E.Y. (2014). Fuel reduction practices and their effects on soil quality. USDA, Forest Service, General Technical Report PSW-GTR-241, US.
Calladine, J. R., Park, K. J., Thompson, K., & Wernham, C. V. (2006). Review of urban gulls and their management in Scotland. A report to the Scottish executive. Edinburgh: Scottish Executive Available at: https://www.gov.scot/publications/review-urban-gulls-management-scotland/. Accessed May, 2019.
Cannon, A. R., Chamberlain, D. E., Toms, M. P., Hatchwell, B. J., & Gaston, K. J. (2005). Trends in the use of private gardens by wild birds in Great Britain 1995-2002. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 659–671.
Case, L. D., Cruickshank, H., Ellis, A. E., & White, W. F. (1965). Weather causes heavy bird mortality. Florida Naturalist, 38(1), 29–30.
Celesti Grapow, L. (1995). Atlante della flora di Roma. La distribuzione delle piante spontanee come indicatore ambientale. Rome: Argos.
Celesti Grapow, L., Caneva, G., & Pacini, A. (2001). The flora of Colosseum (Rome). Webbia, 56(29), 321–342.
Cheke, A. (2010). The timing of arrival of humans and their commensal animals on Western Indian Ocean oceanic islands. Phelsuma, 18, 38–69.
Chester, J. W. (1997). The great famine: Northern Europe in the early fourteenth century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Clements, F. E. (1936). Nature and structure of the climax. The Journal of Ecology, 24, 252–284.
Colantoni, P., Gabbianelli, G., Manici, F., & Bertoni, W. (1997). Coastal defence by breakwaters and sea-level rise: The case of the Italian northern Adriatic Sea. In F. Briand, & A. Maldonado (Eds.), Transformations and evolution of the mediterranean coastline (pp. 133-150). Bulletin de l’Institute océanographique., Monaco, n° special 18, CIESM Science Series n°3.
Coues, E. (1876). The destruction of birds by telegraph wire. The University of Chicago Press Journals, 10(12), 734–736.
Dall, S. R. X., & Johnstone, R. A. (2002). Managing uncertainty: Information and insurance under the risk of starvation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 357, 1519–1526.
Dall, S. R. X., Giraldeau, L. A., Olsson, O., McNamara, J. M., & Stephens, D. W. (2005). Information and its use by animals in evolutionary ecology. Trend in Ecology and Evolution, 20(4), 187–193.
Danchin, E., Giraldeau, L.-A., Valone, T. J., & Wagner, R. H. (2004). Public information: From nosy neighbors to cultural evolution. Science, 305, 487–491.
Davie, J. M., Roper, T. J., & Shepherdson, D. J. (1987). Seasonal distribution of road kills in the European badger (Meles meles). Journal of Zoology, 211, 525–529.
DeVault, T. L., Blawell, B. F., Seamans, T. W., Lima, S. L., & Fernandéz-Juricic, E. (2014). Speed kills: Ineffective avian escape responses to oncoming vehicles. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 282, 20142188.
Di Castri, F. (1981). Mediterranean-type shrublands of the world. In F. Di Castri, D. W. Goodall, & R. L. Specht (Eds.), Collection ecosystems of the world (Vol. 11, pp. 1–52). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Donovan, T. (2015). Feral cities: Adventures with animals in the urban jungle. Chicago: Chicago Review Press Incorporated.
Dunn, E. H., & Tessaglia-Hymes, D. L. (1999). Birds at your feeder. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Erbe, C., Dunlop, R., & Dolman, S. (2018). Effects of noise on marine mammals. In H. Slabbekoorn, R. J. Dooling, A. N. Popper, & R. R. Fay (Eds.), Effects of anthropogenic noise on animals (pp. 227–309). New York: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC part of Springer Nature.
Erickson, W.P., Johnson, G.D., Strickland, M.D., Young jr, D.P., Sernka, K.J., & Good, R.E. (2001). Avian collision with wind turbines: A summary of existing studies and comparisons to other sources of avian collision mortality in the United States. National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC) Resource Document. Washington DC, US.
Ewen, J. G., Walker, L., Canessa, S., & Groombridge, J. J. (2015). Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation. Conservation Biology, 29(2), 341–349.
FAO (2019). https://www.fao.org. Accessed May, 2019.
Farina, A. (2012). A biosemiotic perspective of the resource criterion: Toward a general theory of resources. Biosemiotics, 5, 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12304-014-9213-0.
Farina, A. (2018). Rural sanctuary: An ecosemiotic agency to preserve human cultural heritage and biodiversity. Biosemiotics, 11, 139–158.
Farina, A. (2020). Ecosemiotic landscape: A novel approach to reconcile environment and humanities. Events, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press in press.
Farina, A., & Belgrano, A. (2004). The eco-field: A new paradigm for landscape ecology. Ecological Research, 19, 107–110.
Farina, A., & Belgrano, A. (2006). The eco-field hypothesis: Toward a cognitive landscape. Landscape Ecology, 21, 5–17.
Farina, A., Johnson, A. R., Turner, S. J., & Belgrano, A. (2003). “Full” world versus “empty” world paradigm at the time of globalization. Ecological Economics, 45, 11–18.
Farina, A., Scozzafava, S., & Napoletano, B. (2007). Therapeutic landscapes: Paradigms and application. Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, 8, 9–13.
Farina, A., Pieretti, N., & Morganti, N. (2013). Acoustic patterns of an invasive species: The red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea Scopoli 1786) in a Mediterranean shrubland. Bioacoustics, 22(3), 175–194.
Feltwell, J. (1982). Large White butterfly. The biology, biochemistry and physiology of Pieris brassicae (Linneus). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group.
Ferri, M. (2018). Le “rondonare”: come attrarre i rondoni negli edifici, dal medioevo ai nostri giorni. Atti Società dei Naturalisti e dei Matematici di Modena, 149, 181–224.
Fischer, J., & Lindenmayer, D. B. (2007). Landscape modification and habitat fragmentation: A synthesis. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 16, 265–280.
Forman, R. T. T., Sperling, D., Bissonnette, J. A., Clevenger, A. P., Cutshall, C. D., Dale, V. H., et al. (2003). Road ecology. Science and solutions. Washington: Island Press.
Gaston, K. J., Quinn, R. M., Blackburn, T. M., & Eversham, B. C. (1998). Species-range size distributions in Britain. Ecography, 21(4), 361–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.1998.tb00401.x.
Gibson, J. J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. New York: Cornell University Press.
Gliwicz, J., Goszczynski, J., & Luniak, M. (1994). Characteristic features of animal populations under synurbization – The case of the blackbird and of the striped field mouse. Memoralia Zoologica, 49, 237–244.
GOV.UK (2017). National Nature Reserves in England. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-nature-reserves-in-england. Accessed May 2019
Griffin, D. R. (1976). The audibility of frog choruses to migrating birds. Animal Behaviour, 24, 421–427.
Griffin, D. R., & Hopkins, C. D. (1974). Sound audible to migrating birds. Animal Behaviour, 22, 672–678.
Harris, L. D. (1984). The fragmented Forest. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Healy, K., McNally, L., Ruxton, G. D., & Cooper, N. (2013). Metabolic rate and body size are linked with perception of temporal information. Animal Behaviour, 86, 685–696.
Hobbs, R. J., Higgs, E., & Harris, J. A. (2009). Novel ecosystems: Implications for conservation and restoration. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 24(11), 599–605.
Hobbs, R. J., et al. (2014). Managing the whole landscape: Historical, hybrid, and novel ecosystems. Frontier Ecology Environment, 12(10), 557–564.
Holling, C. S. (1973). Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 1–23.
Holt, M. N., Noren, D. P., Veirs, V., Emmons, C. K., & Veirs, S. (2008). Speaking up: Killer whales (Orcinus orca) increase their call amplitude in response to vessel noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 125(1), EL27–EL32.
Hulme-Beaman, A., Dobney, K., Cucchi, T., & Searle, J. B. (2016). An ecological and evolutionary framework for commensalism in anthropogenic environments. Trend in Ecology and Evolution, 31(8), 633–645.
Jones, D. N., & Reynolds, J. (2008). Feeding birds in our towns and cities: A global research opportunity. Journal of Avian Biology, 39, 265–271.
Kemper, C. (1996). A study of bird mortality at a west Central Wisconsin TV tower from 1957-1995. The Passenger Pigeon, 58, 219–235.
Koops, F.-B.J. (1987). Collision victims of high-tension lines in the Netherlands and effects of marking. KRMA report 01282-MOB 86-3048.
Kopnina, H. (2016). Half of the earth for people (or more)? Addressing ethical questions in conservation. Biological Conservation, 203, 176–185.
Kover, L., Gyure, P., Balogh, P., Huettmann, F., Lengyeld, S., & Juhasz, L. (2015). Recent colonization and nest site selection of the hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix L.) in an urban environment. Landscape and Urban Planning, 133, 78–86.
Kowarik, I. (1990). Some responses of flora and vegetation to urbanization in Central Europe. In H. S. S. Hejny & I. Kowarik (Eds.), Urban ecology (pp. 45–74). Haag: SPB Academic.
Kunc, H. P., McLaughlin, K. E., & Schmidt, R. (2016). Aquatic noise pollution: Implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 283(1836). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.0839.
Lal, R., Reicosky, D. C., & Hanson, J. D. (2007). Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming. Soil & Tillage Research, 93, 1–12.
Legagneux, P., & Ducatez, S. (2013). European birds adjust their flight initiation distance to road speed limits. Biology Letters, 9(5), 20130417. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0417.
Little, E.L., Woodbury, R.O., & Wadsworth, F.H. (1974). Trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, volume 2. USDA Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 449. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Lloyd, S. (1990). The calculus of intricacy. The Sciences, 30(5), 38–44.
Longcore, T., Rich, C., Mineau, P., MacDonald, B., Bert, D. G., Sullivan, L. M., et al. (2013). Avian mortality at communication rowers in the United States and Canada: Which species, how many, and where? Biological Conservation, 158, 410–419.
Lotze, H. K., Lenihan, H. S., Bourque, B. J., Bradbury, R. H., Cooke, R. G., Kay, M. C., Kidwell, S. M., Kirby, M. X., Peterson, C. H., & Jackson, J. B. (2006). Depletion, degradation, and recovery potential of estuaries and coastal seas. Science, 312, 1806–1809.
Lowry, H., Lill, A., & Wong, B. B. M. (2013). Behavioural responses of wildlife to urban environments. Biological Reviews, 88, 537–549.
Mackin-Rogalska, R., Pinowski, J., Solon, J., & Wojcik, Z. (1988). Changes in vegetation, avifauna, and small mammals in a suburban habitat. Polish Ecological Studies, 14, 293–330.
Marzluff, J. M. (2001). Worldwide urbanization and its effects on birds. In J. M. Marzluff, R. Bowman, & R. Donnelly (Eds.), Avian ecology in an urbanizing world (pp. 19–47). Boston: Springer.
McDonald, M. A., Hildebrand, J. A., & Wiggins, S. M. (2006). Increases in deep ocean ambient noise in the Northeast Pacific west of San Nicolas Island, California. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 120(2), 711–718.
McIntyre, N. E. (2000). Ecology of urban arthropods: A review and a call to action. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 93, 825–835.
McKinney, M. L. (2008). Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals. Urban Ecosystems, 11(2), 161–176. https://doi.org/10.10007/s11252-007-0045-4.
Menant, C. (2003). Information and meaning. Entropy, 5, 193–204.
Minnich, D. E. (1936). The responses of caterpillars to sounds. The Journal of Experimental Zoology, 72(3), 439–453.
Morley, E. L., Jones, G., & Radford, A. (2014). The importance of invertebrates when considering the impacts of anthropogenic noise. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281, 20132683.
Morse, N.B., Pellissier, P.A., Cinciola, E.N., Brereton, R.L., Sullivan, M.M., Shonka, N.K., & et al. (2014). Novel ecosystems in the anthropocene: A revision of the novel ecosystem concept for pragmatic applications. Ecology and Society, 19(2), 12, https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-06192-190212.
Mullet, T. C., Farina, A., & Gage, S. H. (2017). The acoustic habitat hypothesis: An ecoacoustics perspective on species habitat selection. Biosemiotics, 10, 319–336. https://doi.org/10.10007/s12304-017-9288-5.
Naveh, Z., & Dan, J. (1973). The human degradation of Mediterranean landscapes in Israel. In F. di Castri & H. A. Mooney (Eds.), Mediterranean type ecosystems. Ecological studies (analysis and synthesis) (Vol. 7, pp. 373–390). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Odling-Smee, J., Douglas, H. E., Palkovacs, E. P., Feldman, M. W., & Laland, K. N. (2013). Niche construction theory: A practical guide for ecologists. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 88(1), 4–28.
Oro, D., Genovart, M., Tavecchia, G., Fowler, M. S., & Martınez-Abraın, A. (2013). Ecological and evolutionary implications of food subsidies from humans. Ecological Letters, 16, 1501–1514.
Paine, T. D., Steinbauer, M. J., & Lawson, S. A. (2011). Native and exotic pest of eucalyptus: A worldwide perspective. The Annual Review of Entomology, 56, 181–201.
Parks, S. E., Clark, C. W., & Tyack, P. L. (2007). Short and long-term changes in right whale calling behavior: The potential effects of noise on acoustic communication. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 122(6), 3725–3731.
Porter, E. E., Forschner, B. R., & Blair, R. B. (2001). Woody vegetation and canopy fragmentation along a forest-to-urban gradient. Urban Ecosystems, 5, 131–151.
Prugh, L. R., Hodges, K. E., Sinclair, A. R. E., & Brashares, J. S. (2008). Effect of habitat area and isolation on fragmented animal populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 20770–20775.
Pulliam, R. (1988). Sources-sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist, 132, 652–661.
Ravinet, M., Oldeide, T., Trier, C., Aliabadian, M., Gravilov, A., & Saetre, G.-P. (2018). Signatures of human-commensalism in the house sparrow genome. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1246.
Reynolds, S. J., Galbraith, J. A., Smith, J. A., & Jones, D. N. (2017). Garden bird feeding: Insights and prospects from a north-south comparison of this global urban phenomenon. Frontiers of Ecology and Evolution. https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2017.00024.
Risser, P. R. (1995). The status of the science examining ecotones - a dynamic aspect of landscape is the area of steep gradients between more homogeneous vegetation associations. Bioscience, 45(5), 318–325.
Robb, G. N., McDonald, R. A., Chamberlain, D. E., & Bearhop, S. (2008). Food for thought: Supplementary feeding as a driver of ecological change in avian populations. Frontiers of Ecology and Evolution, 6, 476–484. https://doi.org/10.1890/060152.
Roser, M., Ritchie, H., Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2019). https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth. Accessed May, 2019.
RSPB (2002). Royal Society for the protection of birds, Sandy, UK. http://www.rspb.org.uk . Accessed May 2019.
Schlaepfer, M. A., Runge, M. C., & Sherman, P. W. (2002). Ecological and evolutionary traps. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17(10), 474–480.
Schneider, D. (2011). Hybrid nature: Sewage treatment and the contradictions of the industrial ecosystem. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Sieben, K., Rippen, A. D., & Eriksson, B. K. (2011). Cascading effects from predator removal depend on resource availability in a benthic food web. Marine Biology, 158(2), 391–400.
Smith, T. B., Wayne, R. K., Girman, D. J., & Bruford, M. W. (1997). A role of ecotones in generating rainforest biodiversity. Science, 276, 1855–1857.
Spellenberg, I. F. (1998). Ecological effects of road and traffic: A literature review. Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, 7, 317–333.
Stewart, O. C. (2002). Forgotten fires: Native Americans and the transient wilderness. Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press.
Thaxter, C. B., Buchanan, G. M., Carr, J., Butchart, S. H. M., Newbold, T., Green, R. E., et al. (2017). Bird and bat species’ global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.0829.
Truitt, A. M., Granek, E. F., Duveneck, M. J., Goldschmidt, K. A., Jordan, M. P., & Yazzie, K. C. (2015). What is novel about novel ecosystems: Managing change in an ever-changing world. Environmental Management, 55, 1217–1226.
Ulanowicz, R. E. (1983). Ecology, the ascendant perspective. New York: Columbia University Press.
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2014). World urbanization prospects: The 2014 revision, highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352). New York: The United Nations.
Vale, T. R. (2002). The pre-European landscape of the United States: Pristine or humanized? In T. R. Vale (Ed.), Fire, native peoples, and the natural landscape (pp. 1–39). Washington, DC: Island Press.
Valone, T. J., & Templeton, J. J. (2002). Public information for the assessment of quality: A widespread social phenomenon. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 357, 1549–1557.
Vigne, J.-D. (2015). Early domestication and farming: What should be known or do for a better understanding? Anthropozoologica, 50, 123–150.
von Uexküll, J. (1982). The theory of meaning. Semiotica, 42, 25–82.
Vought, B.-M., Dahl, J., Pedersen, C. L., & Lacoursière, J. O. (1994). Nutrient retention in riparian Ecotones. Ambio, 23(6), 342–348.
West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1997). A general model for the origin of allometric scaling laws in biology. Science, 276, 122–126.
Whitefield, A. K., & Becker, A. (2014). Impacts of recreational motorboats on fishes: A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 83, 24–31.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Farina, A. Hybrid Nature: Effects on Environmental Fundamentals and Species’ Semiosis. Biosemiotics 13, 21–40 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12304-019-09373-9
- Hybrid nature