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The Rules of Variation Expanded, Implications for the Research on Compatible Genomics

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Abstract

The main focus of this article is to present the practical aspect of the code rules of variation and the search for a second set of genomic rules, including comparison of sequences to understand how to preserve compatible organisms in danger of extinction and how to generate biodiversity. Three new rules of variation are introduced: 1) homologous recombination, 2) a healthy fertile offspring, and 3) comparison of compatible genomes. The novel search in the natural world for fully compatible genomes capable of homologous recombination is explored by using examples of human polymorphisms and by the production of fertile offspring by crossbreeding. By a rational control of: natural crossbreeding of organisms with compatible genomes (something already happening in nature), the current work focuses on the generation of new varieties after a careful plan. This study is presented within the context of biosemiotics, which studies the processing of information, signalling and signs by living systems. I define a group of organisms having compatible genomes as a single theme: the genomic species or population, able to speak the same molecular language through different accents, with each variety within a theme being a different version of the same book. These studies have a molecular, compatible genetics context. Population and ecosystem biosemiotics will be exemplified by a possible genetic damage capable of causing mutations by breaking the rules of variation through the coordinated patterns of atoms present in the 9/11 World Trade Center contaminated dust (U, Ba, La, Ce, Sr, Rb, K, Mn, Mg, etc.), combination that may be able to overload the molecular quality control mechanisms of the human body. I introduce here the balance of codons in the circular genetic code: 2[1(1)+1(3)+1(4)+4(2)]=2[2(2)+3(4)].

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  1. Graeser, M. H., Lynn, J. A., Schoenheit, J. W. 2003. Ch. 18. P. 381. The Rejection of Both Scripture and Logic. In: One God & One Lord. 3rd ed. CES. Indiana. 685 p. URL: http://www.truthortradition.com/book6

  2. Ground Zero’, phrase used by Rehema Ellis in her NBC 9/11 report she started at 11:45 AM on 9/11 on the WTC toxic-dust filled streets of N.Y. [see it in the telling context in which it was aired by Tom Brokaw: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hv1fXzJI3E8]

  3. Table of the 9/11 WTC dust leachate: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/leach1/WTCleachtable.html [Saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wY58KHfV], Table of the 9/11 WTC dust chemistry: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/chem1/WTCchemistrytable.html [Saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wY5dWAb8]

  4. http://www.akc.org/breeds/complete_breed_list.cfm [saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wY69REut]

  5. v.gr., as seen at the link: http://www.avianweb.com/finchspecies.htm [Saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wY6gSmqT]

  6. Dinosaurs and their contemporaries included; some of them, previously thought as carnivores are now known as herbivores, see Zanno and Makovicky. 2011. Herbivorous ecomorphology and specialization patterns in theropod dinosaur evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108(1):232–237. [http://www.pnas.org/content/108/1/232, comment by The Smithsonian saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wahicQzP]

  7. http://skepticwiki.org/index.php/Darwin%27s_Finches [broken, fragment preserved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wY9hByc3]. “I look at the term species as one arbitrarily given, for the sake of convenience, to a set of individuals closely resembling each other, and that it does not essentially differ from the term variety”, Darwin, C., Ch.2. Variation Under Nature, Doubtful Species, last paragraph (13th), The Origin of Species, http://tinyurl.com/29j7ppe [Saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wZiBYXl5]

  8. Fixed = “fest” (German), ‘definite limits to how species may be transformed through cross-breeding.’ [Taken from: http://www.mendelweb.org/MWgloss.html#fixed, saved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5y2nUFd3R]

  9. “Following 9/11, it is estimated that as many as 50,000 at Ground Zero wore little or no protective gear”, http://www.webcitation.org/5wY7sF09M, http://www.wtcemergencyworkers.com “of the estimated 60,000 to 70,000 emergency responders” (Wu et al. 2010). Also see: Ryan, K. 2011. Energetic Materials as a Potential Cause of the 9/11 First Responder Illnesses. Foreign Policy Journal [Online: http://www.webcitation.org/5wY7sF09M, http://www.webcitation.org/5wZoR2t4a, http://www.webcitation.org/5wZTaeFRO]

  10. The 15th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Vice-Chairman who acted as Chairman on 9/11 in the absence of the 14th Chairman, wrote that the way the twin towers fell “…evoked a nuclear explosion” [Myers, R. B., McConnell, M. 2009. Eyes on the horizon. Ch. 8. P. 154. Simon and Schuster. New York. 339 p., preserved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wZiVnNpX] Beta radiation activity was twice the background level in the three samples of the 9/11 WTC dust analyzed by Lioy et al. (2002) (Lioy et al. 2002), which may help explain the high correlation between Ba (56), La (57) and Ce (58). Atomic numbers in parentheses ( )

  11. http://www.webcitation.org/5wYA07Vmt; Toxic dust: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsoLm66lEUQ; Tampering the results: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXCQ3KIt-ro See also: http://www.webcitation.org/5y2Yyw2RY, http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ZF2AJb, http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ZUDR0f (“the number of seriously ill New Yorkers could climb to 300,000 in the near future”, Oct. 2007), http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ZeTi0i, http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ZmczVg, http://www.webcitation.org/5y2ZwdOSh, http://www.webcitation.org/5y3yvTtua

  12. Apparently nobody quantified Plutonium (Pu) at the 9/11 WTC. It seems that Pu did split, starting the fission reactions.

  13. http://www.webcitation.org/5wYAlIlGJ

  14. Cahill called the products of this stage of the 9/11 destruction “the miserable “brutal” materials of the smolder phase, with its disastrous and continuing health impacts. These will inevitably include ischemic heart disease deaths in a few years”; he talked about “the now accepted lethality of the fuming smolder phase” (email on 03/23/2007 to Jenkins 2007) (Jenkins 2007). The 9/11 WTC extreme heat was “shown by the melting of metals” (Cahill et al. 2004), http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hWHvnprvSbc, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WWAnCd_6lg

  15. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/leach1/index.html (leach figures 2 to 6, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYBFTMEN). Preserved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wYBljfuw, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYCBbX2d, http://www.webcitation.org/5wZQ0qbDY.

  16. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0429/chem1/index.html (chemistry figures 2 to 4, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYBOVn5q) Preserved at: http://www.webcitation.org/5wYCMQmL3, http://www.webcitation.org/5wYCTz9wm.

  17. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iOLIlKHDd78, WTC7 demolition to the ground of east penthouse ~7 s before the whole building.

  18. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7RhdBxEe_6M, WTC6 molten concrete (~2150°C) engulfing metals and perhaps carbonizing paper.

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Acknowledgements

Ellen M. Carroll (U.T.), my wife Tracy L. Duncan and Marjorie McNichols (V.A.) helped in preparing this manuscript, two unknown reviewers provided valuable suggestions and Joel D. Morrisett (B.C.M.) did read a later version of it. I remember both first responders and residents of Manhattan suffering today from the 9/11 WTC dust. Thanks to Marcello Barbieri, editor of Biosemiotics, for inviting me to write this article. Partly supported by NIH grant T32 HL 07812–11. This manuscript is also available at PubMed.

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Correspondence to Fernando Castro-Chavez.

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The basic information on the compatible genomes for a fertile offspring and homologous recombination was presented to the 1st and 2nd generations of Medicine and Biology in Puerto Vallarta (C.U.C., U. de G.) and in my AVBRTP first Seminar (Baylor/Methodist).

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Castro-Chavez, F. The Rules of Variation Expanded, Implications for the Research on Compatible Genomics. Biosemiotics 5, 121–145 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12304-011-9118-0

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