Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 1127–1137 | Cite as

Adenine type and diphenyl urea derived cytokinins improve the postharvest performance of Iris germanica L. cut scapes

  • Syed Sabhi Ahmad
  • Inayatullah TahirEmail author
  • Arif Shafi Wani
  • Riyaz Ahmad Dar
  • Shaziya Nisar
Research Article


An experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of various adenine derived cytokinins (kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine) and diphenyl urea cytokinin (thidiazuron) on the postharvest performance of cut scapes of Iris germanica. Flower scapes were harvested with the oldest bud at ‘1 day before anthesis stage’, brought to laboratory under water, cut to a uniform length of 35 cm, divided into three sets viz., kinetin (KIN), 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and thidiazuron (TDZ). Each set of scapes was treated with a particular cytokinin alone or in combination with 0.1 M sucrose. TDZ was effective than KIN and BAP in improving the postharvest life of the I. germanica scapes by 5.4 days as compared to the control (untreated scapes held in distilled water). This was because of the minimum percentage of bud abortion by TDZ application. Cytokinin application resulted in increased antioxidant activity, higher protein and phenolic content, besides a decrease in specific protease activity and α-amino acids in the tepal tissues. Application of TDZ resulted in the maximum increase in the superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activity in the tepal tissues. The scapes treated with BAP and KIN maintained higher carbohydrate content in the tissue samples as compared to control and TDZ treated scapes. TDZ and BAP application resulted in increased membrane stability because of the decreased lipoxygenase activity which prevented membrane lipid peroxidation. Among the cytokinins tested, TDZ proved to be the promising cytokinin in improving the postharvest performance of beautiful flowers of I. germanica scapes.


Antioxidant enzymes Benzylaminopurine Kinetin Senescence Thidiazuron 



The authors thank Prof. S. Farooq for his influence through the opportunities he provided and insights he conveyed. Dr. Syed Sabhi Ahmad thanks University Grants Commission, Govt. of India for providing SRF under (UGC-BSR) SRF scheme.

Author’s contribution

Syed Sabhi Ahmad carried out the experiments, obtained results, analyzed, compiled the data and drafted the manuscript. Prof. Inayatullah Tahir helped in designing the experiment, supervised the laboratory work, took the photographs and edited the manuscript. Arif Shafi Wani, Riyaz Ahmad Dar and Shaziya Nisar helped in statistical analysis of the data and in the laboratory work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors don’t have any conflict of interest regarding this manuscript.


  1. Aebi H (1984) Catalase in vitro. Meth Enzymol 105:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad SS, Tahir I (2015) Storage protocol for improving the postharvest performance in cut scapes of Iris versicolor. Acta Hortic 1060:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad SS, Tahir I (2016a) Increased oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein degradation trigger senescence in Iris versicolor L. flowers. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 22(4):507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad SS, Tahir I (2016b) How and why of flower senescence: understanding from models to ornamentals. Ind J Plant Physiol 21(4):446–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahmad SS, Tahir I (2017) Regulatory role of phenols in flower development and senescence in the genus Iris. Ind J Plant Physiol 22(1):135–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ahmad SS, Tahir I, Shahri W (2013) Effect of different storage treatments on physiology and postharvest performance in cut scapes of three Iris Species. J Agric Sci Technol 15:323–331Google Scholar
  7. Arrom L, Munne-Bosch S (2012) Hormonal changes during flower development in floral tissues of Lilium. Planta 236:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Axerold B, Chesbrough TM, Laakso S (1981) Lipoxygenase from soybean. In: Lowenstein JM (ed) Methods enzymology. Academic Press, New York, pp 441–451Google Scholar
  9. Bartrina I, Jensen H, Novak O, Strnad M, Werner T, Schmulling T (2017) Gain-of-function mutants of the cytokinin receptors AHK2 and AHK3 regulate plant organ size, flowering time and plant longevity. Plant Physiol. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Celikel FG, van Doorn WG (1995) Solute leakage, lipid peroxidation, and protein degradation during the senescence of Iris tepals. Plant Physiol 94:515–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Celikel FG, van Doorn WG (2012) Endogenous ethylene does not regulate opening of unstressed Iris flowers but strongly inhibits it in water-stressed flowers. J Plant Physiol 169:1425–1429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen GX, Asada K (1989) Ascorbate peroxidase in tea leaves: occurrence of two isozymes and the differences in their enzymatic and molecular properties. Plant Cell Physiol 30:987–998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cvikrova M, Sukhova LS, Eder J, Korableva NP (1994) Possible involvement of abscisic acid, ethylene and phenolic acids in potato tuber dormancy. Plant Physiol Biochem 32:685–691Google Scholar
  14. Danilova MN, Kudryakova NV, Doroshenko AS, Zabrodin DA, Rakhmankulova ZF, Oelmuller R, Kusnetsov VV (2017) Opposite roles of the Arabidopsis cytokinin receptors AHK2 and AHK3 in the expression of plastid genes and genes for the plastid transcriptional machinery during senescence. Plant Mol Biol 93(5):533–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dar RA, Tahir I, Ahmad SS (2014a) Sugars and sugar alcohol have their say in the regulation of flower senescence in Dianthus chinensis L. Sci Hortic 174:24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dar RA, Tahir I, Ahmad SS (2014b) Physiological and biochemical changes associated with flower development and senescence in Dianthus chinensis. Ind J Plant Physiol 19:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dek MSP, Padmanabhan P, Sherif S, Subramanium J, Paliyath G (2017) Upregulation of phosphatidylinositol 3- Kinase (P13K) enhances ethylene biosynthesis and accelerates flower senescence in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. Intl J Mol Sci 18(7):1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dhindsa RS, Plumb-Dhindsa D, Thorpe TA (1981) Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. J Exp Bot 32:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ferrante A, Sodi AM, Serra G (2009) Effect of thidiazuron and gibberellic acid on leaf yellowing of cut stock flowers. Cent Eur J Biol 4(4):461–468Google Scholar
  20. Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Ishiguro K, Nakayama T, Utsunomiya Y, Tanaka Y, Kusumi T, Ueda T (2000) Molecular and functional characterization of a rose lipoxygenase cDNA related to flower senescence. Plant Sci 160:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Have AT, Woltering EJ (1997) Ethylene biosynthetic genes are differentially expressed during carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower senescence. Plant Mol Biol 34:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplast I. Kinetics and stochiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125:189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hunter DA, Steele BC, Reid MS (2002) Identification of genes associated with perianth senescence in daffodil (Narcissus Pseudonarcissus L. “Dutch master”). Plant Sci 163:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hunter DA, Ferranti A, Vernieri P, Reid MS (2004) Role of abscisic acid in perianth senescence of daffodil (Narcissus Pseudonarcissus “Dutch master”). Physiol Plant 121:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ichimura K, Shimizu-Yumoto H, Goto R (2009) Ethylene production by the gynoecium and receptacle is associated with sepal abscission in cut Delphinium flowers. Postharvest Biol Technol 52:262–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Imsabai W, van Doorn WG (2013) Effects of auxin, gibberellin, and cytokinin on petal blackening and flower opening in cut lotus flowers (Nelumbo nucifera). Postharvest Biol Technol 75:54–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Iqbal N, Khan NA, Ferrante A, Trivellini A, Francini A, Khan MIR (2017) Ethylene role in plant growth, development and senescence. Interaction with other phytohormones. Front Plant Sci 8:475. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Javid MG, Sorooshzadeh A, Sanavy SAMM, Allahdadi I, Moradi F (2011) Effects of the exogenous application of auxin and cytokinin on carbohydrate accumulation in grains of rice under salt stress. Plant Growth Regul 65:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jones ML, Chaffin GS, Eason JR, Clark DG (2005) Ethylene sensitivity regulates proteolytic activity and cysteine protease gene expression in Petunia corollas. J Exp Bot 56:2733–2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lattanzio M, Lattanzio VMT, Cardinali A (2006) Role of phenolics in the resistance mechanisms of plants against fungal pathogens and insects. Phytochem Adv Res 661:23–67Google Scholar
  31. Lee AK, Rhee SR, Suh JK, Cha HC (2005) Development of floral organ and physiochemical changes of cut Iris hollandica ‘Blue Magic’ according to plant growth regulators and storage temperature. Acta Hortic 673:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu C, Li F, Gai S, Zhang Y, Zhah X, Lu X, Zheng G (2016a) Screening and identification of genes associated with flower senescence in tree Peony (Paeonia × Suffnuticosa Andrews) using suppression subtractive hybridization. J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 92(2):146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu T, Longhurst AD, Talavera-Rauh F, Hokin SA, Barton MK (2016b) The Arabidopsis transcription factor ABIG1 relays ABA signaled growth inhibition and drought induced senescence. eLife 5:1–19Google Scholar
  34. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193(1):265–275Google Scholar
  35. Lukaszewski TA, Reid MS (1989) Bulb-type flower senescence. Acta Hortic 261:59–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Macnish AJ, Jiang CZ, Negre-Zakharov F, Reid MS (2010a) Physiological and molecular changes during opening and senescence of Nicotiana mutabilis flowers. Plant Sci 179(3):267–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Macnish AJ, Jiang CZ, Reid MS (2010b) Treatment with thidiazuron improves opening and vase life of iris flowers. Postharvest Biol Technol 56:77–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mittler R, Vanderauwera S, Gollery M, Breusegem F (2004) Reactive oxygen gene network of plants. Trends Plant Sci 9:490–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mor Y, Spiegelstein H, Halevy AH (1983) Inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis in carnation petals by cytokinin. Plant Physiol 71:541–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mortazavi SN, Talebi SF, Naderi RA, Sharafi Y (2011) Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis by nitric acid and thidiazuron during postharvest of rose. J Med Plant Res 5(20):5177–5183Google Scholar
  41. Mwangi M, Chatterjee SR, Bhattacharjee SK (2003) Changes in the biochemical constituents of “Golden gate” cut rose petals as affected by precooling with ice cold water spray, pulsing and packaging. J Plant Biol 30:95–97Google Scholar
  42. Nelson N (1944) A photometric adaptation of the Somogyi method for the determination of glucose. J Biol Chem 153:375–380Google Scholar
  43. Nisar S, Tahir I, Ahmad SS (2015) Modulation of flower senescence in Nicotiana plumabinifolia by polyamines. Ind J Plant Physiol 20:186–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pak C, van Doorn WG (2005) Delay of Iris flower senescence by protease inhibitors. New Phytol 165:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Panavas T, Rubinstein B (1998) Oxidative events during programmed cell death of daylily (Hemerocallis hybrid) petals. Plant Sci 133:25–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Petit-Paly G, Franck T, Brisson L, Kevers C, Chenieux C, Rideau M (1999) Cytokinin modulates catalase activity and coumarin accumulation in in vitro cultures of tobacco. J Plant Physiol 155:9–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Price AM, Orellana DFA, Salleh FM, Stevens R, Acock R, Buchanan-Wollaston V, Stead AD, Rogers HJ (2008) A comparison of leaf and petal senescence in wallflower reveals common and distinct patterns of gene expression and physiology. Plant Physiol 147(4):1898–1912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Radio MC, Arrom L, Puig S, Munne-Bosch S (2017) Hormonal sensitivity decreases during the progression of flower senescence in Lilium longiflorum. J Plant Growth Regul 36(2):402–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reid MS, Wu MJ (2018) Ethylene in flower development and senescence. In: Mattoo AK, Suttle JC (eds) The plant hormone ethylene. CRC Press Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, pp 4–32Google Scholar
  50. Rogers HJ (2013) From models to ornamentals: how is flower senescence regulated? Plant Mol Biol 82:563–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rosen H (1957) A modified ninhydrin colorimetric analysis for amino acids. Arch Biochem Biophys 67(1):10–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Saeed T, Hassan I, Abbasi NA, Jilani G (2014) Effect of gibberellic acid on the vase life and oxidative activities in senescing cut gladiolus flowers. Plant Growth Regul 72:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sairam RK (1994) Effect of moisture stress on physiological activities of two contrasting wheat genotypes. Indian J Exp Biol 32:584–593Google Scholar
  54. Sankhla N, Mackay WA, Davis TD (2005) Effect of thidiazuron on senescence of flowers in cut inflorescences of Lupinus densiflorus Benth. Acta Hortic 669:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schmitzer V, Veberic R, Osterc G, Stampar F (2010) Color and phenolic content changes during flower development in groundcover rose. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 135(3):195–202Google Scholar
  56. Schnablova R, Synkova H, Vicankova A, Burketova L, Ederc J, Cvikrova M (2006) Transgenic ipt tobacco overproducing cytokinins over accumulates phenolic compounds during in vitro growth. Plant Physiol Biochem 44:526–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shahri W, Tahir I (2014) Flower senescence: some molecular aspects. Planta 239:277–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Shibuya K, Ichimura K (2016) Physiology and molecular biology of flower senescence. In: Pareek S (ed) Postharvest ripening physiology of crops. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 109–129Google Scholar
  59. Siranidou E, Kang Z, Buchnauer H (2002) Studies on symptom development, phenolic compounds and morphological defense responses in wheat cultivars differing in resistance to Fusarium head blight. J Phytopathol 150:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sui S, Luo J, Liu D, Ma J, Men W, Fan L, Bai Y, Li M (2015) Effects of hormone treatments on cut flower opening and senescence in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox). HortScience 50:1365–1369Google Scholar
  61. Swain T, Hillis WE (1959) The phenolic constituents of Prunus domestica I. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J Sci Food Agric 10(1):63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Synkova H, Semoradova S, Schnablova R, Witters E, Husak M, Valcke R (2006) Cytokinin-induced activity of antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco during plant ontogeny. Biol Plant 50(1):31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tassoni A, Accettulli P, Bagni N (2006) Exogenous spermidine delays senescence of Dianthus caryophyllus flowers. Plant Biosyst 140:107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tayyab S, Qamar S (1992) A look into enzyme kinetics: some introductory experiments. Biochem Educ 20(2):116–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Towne G, Owensby C (1983) Cytokinins effect on protein and chlorophyll content of big bluestem leaves. J Range Manag 36(1):75–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tripathi SK, Tuteja N (2007) Integrated signalling in flower senescence. Plant Signal Behav 2(6):437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Trivellini A, Cocetta G, Vernieri P, Mensuali-Sodi A, Ferrante A (2014) Effect of cytokinins on delaying petunia flower senescence: a transcriptomic approach. Plant Mol Biol 87:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. van Doorn WG (2004) Is petal senescence due to sugar starvation? Plant Physiol 134:35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. van Doorn WG, Woltering EJ (2008) Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence. J Exp Bot 59(3):453–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. van Doorn WG, Harkema H, Song JS (1995) Water relations and senescence of cut Iris flowers: effects of cycloheximide. Postharvest Biol Technol 5:345–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. van Doorn WG, Sinz A, Tomassen MM (2003) Daffodil flowers delay senescence in cut Iris flowers. Phytochemistry 65:571–577Google Scholar
  72. van Doorn WG, Celikel FG, Pak C, Harkema H (2013) Delay of Iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates. Physiol Plant 148:105–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Williamson VG, Hepwonth G (2018) An investigation of ethylene sensitivity in three Australian native of cut flower genera Calothamnus, Grevillea and Philotheca. Sci Hortic 230:149–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Xu X, Gookin T, Jiang C, Reid MS (2007) Genes associated with opening and senescence of Mirabilis jalapa flowers. J Exp Bot 58:2193–2201CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Department of BotanyUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia

Personalised recommendations