Correlation of Serum Retinol and Atherogenic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study


Dyslipidemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, leading to mortality and morbidity in subjects with T2DM. This risk is higher in subjects with diabetes who are on retinoid therapy for some other indication, where hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and low serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and sudden cardiovascular deaths have been reported. Our study aimed to find the correlation of serum retinol and atherogenic index (AI) in subjects with T2DM and compare them with healthy controls. We found there was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, waist hip ratio, total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), the atherogenic ratio of cholesterol (ARC), atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and AI between the two groups. There was a significant positive correlation of serum retinol with TC, TG, LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, ARC, AIP, and AI. In our study we found an association of serum retinol with atherogenic index and dyslipidemia in subjects with T2DM. Serum retinol can be a novel predictor of cardiovascular risk in subjects with T2DM.

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Author information




Conceptualization, Methodology: DB, SS, CCXJ; Data collection: CCXJ; Investigation and data analysis: CCXJ, SN; Writing, review and editing: SS, CCXJ, DB; Resources: BKP, SS, DB, CCXJ; Supervision: SS.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Debapriya Bandyopadhyay.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics committee (IEC) (Registration Number: ECR/534/Inst/OD/2014/RR-17), AIIMS, Bhubaneswar, India. (vide approval number: IEC/AIIMS BBSR/PG Thesis/2018-19/10 dated - 13 July 2018).

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Jyothi, C.C.X., Bandyopadhyay, D., Sahu, S. et al. Correlation of Serum Retinol and Atherogenic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case–Control Study. Ind J Clin Biochem (2021).

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  • Vitamin A
  • Retinoid therapy
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cardiovascular
  • Dyslipidaemia