Bending moment in incremental tube forming
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Incremental tube forming is a combination of free-form bending and spinning, which enables the direct production of curved tailored tubes under greatly reduced forming forces. To predict the effect of radial and circumferential superposed stresses, generated by the spinning rolls, on the bending moment, an analytical model is proposed. The model takes into account the isotropic hardening behaviour of the material as well as the amount of diameter and thickness reduction, simultaneously. The analytical model is validated by experimental studies with various spinning and bending parameters. The bending moment from the analytical model is used to calculate the springback. The calculated springback ratio is in agreement with experiments and shows a deviation of only 5% for the studied material.
KeywordsMetal forming Incremental forming Tube bending Springback Stress superposition Tailored tubes
This research work is kindly supported be the German Research Foundation (DFG) under the grant number TE 508/26-2. The authors additionally thank Prof. Dr. Peter Haupt for the enlightening discussions on the topic of stress-superposition.
This study was funded by DFG (grant number TE 508/26–2).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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