Immunohematological and Clinical Characterization of Complement and Non-Complement Associated Warm Autoimmune Haemolytic Anemia and Risk Factors Predicting their Occurrences

Abstract

Antigen – antibody complexes on heavily coated red cells in Warm autoimmune haemolytic anemia (WAIHA) often activates the complement pathway and red cells bound C3 complement component are encountered in complement associated WAIHA (CWAIHA). Patients belonging to CWAIHA and non-complement associated WAIHA (NCWAIHA) may demographically, clinically and immunohematologically behave differently therefore we planned to study the clinical and immunohematological characteristics of CWAIHA and NCWAIHA with emphasis to various potential factors associated with CWAIHA. The prospective study included 229 patients of WAIHA. Complete DAT evaluation was performed in all these patients. Details of patients and their hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained from patient file and Hospital Information System. In vivo hemolysis was documented as per the criteria established by previous workers. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Of the total 229 patients of WAIHA, 83 (36.2%) belonged to the complement associated WAIHA group. A total of 146 (63.8%) patients were females of which 43 (29.4%) had CWAIHA. The median age of WAIHA patients was 37 years. A total of 46 (56.1%) patients above age 40 years suffered from CWAIHA. Where secondary WAIHA was found in 121 (52.8%) patients; more than half (61.4%) with CWAIHA had underlying aetiology. Over 95% of patients in both categories presented with weakness and pallor. Strong DAT (> 2 +) was observed in 86.7% of CWAIHA patients. Factors like gender, age, aetiology and DAT IgG dilution were independent risk factors for CWAIHA. DAT remained positive even at the end of 10 months of successful treatment. We conclude that detailed characterization of WAIHA with particular emphasis to complement and non—complement associated WAIHA is essential to evaluate the disease characters, immunological behaviours, prognosis and therapeutic management. Moreover an understanding of the risk factors of CWAIHA will help physicians / hematologists and immunohematologists to manage WAIHA more prudently and solicitously.

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Correspondence to Sudipta Sekhar Das.

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Das, S.S., Chakrapani, A., Bhattacharya, S. et al. Immunohematological and Clinical Characterization of Complement and Non-Complement Associated Warm Autoimmune Haemolytic Anemia and Risk Factors Predicting their Occurrences. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12288-021-01402-3

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Keywords

  • Autoimmune haemolytic anemia
  • Complement associated autoimmune haemolytic anemia
  • Direct antiglobulin test
  • Autoantibody
  • DAT IgG dilution