Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Epidemiology and Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Resistance, and New Therapeutic Options


Purpose of Review

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection of the vaginal mucosa caused by fungi of the genus Candida and can become pathogenic under special conditions. It affects about 75% of women at least once in life and is characterized by leukorrhea, intense pruritus, vulvar hyperemia, dysuria, and dyspareunia. The imbalance between the microbiota and these yeasts causes candidiasis. In addition, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) can affect a very significant number, approximately 138 million women worldwide. Pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, use of hormonal contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, antibiotics and steroids, immunosuppressive diseases, and hygienic habits are contributing factors. The evaluation of VVC and RVVC requires clinical criteria associated with laboratory findings, the latter being essential for an accurate diagnosis and a satisfactory therapeutic result.

Recent Findings

New drug formulations already known or carriers promise to increase the effectiveness of the antifungal activity of drugs against VVC and RVVC.


This review aims to describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, resistance, and new therapeutic options in primary and recurrent VVC and RVVC infections.

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de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, J., Silva, D.R., Anibal, P.C. et al. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: Epidemiology and Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Resistance, and New Therapeutic Options. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 15, 32–40 (2021).

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  • Diagnosis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Resistance
  • Therapeutic
  • Vulvovaginal candidiasis