Sporotrichosis: Update on Diagnostic Techniques

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Sporotrichosis, the disease caused by Sporothrix spp, ranges from subcutaneous infections to the severe disseminated or invasive diseases. The taxonomy of Sporothrix has been revised. The subcutaneous disease is suspected easily, but the extra-cutaneous disease is diagnosed by chance or with high suspicion. This review provides the overview of currently available diagnostic techniques.

Recent Finding

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or latex agglutination test with partially purified antigens helps in the diagnosis of extra-cutaneous sporotrichosis. Molecular methods have been used for the identification and typing of the fungus. Calmodulin, beta tubulin, translation elongation factor and chitin synthase genes are targeted for species differentiation. MALDI-TOF MS has been standardized to identify the species.

Summary

PCR-based molecular techniques and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) help in the identification of Sporothrix species, whereas ELISA helps in diagnosing extra-cutaneous form. Utility of molecular techniques for detection of Sporothrix directly from clinical specimen needs to be evaluated.

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Correspondence to Arunaloke Chakrabarti.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Advances in Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Infections

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Rudramurthy, S.M., Chakrabarti, A. Sporotrichosis: Update on Diagnostic Techniques. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 11, 134–140 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12281-017-0283-8

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Keywords

  • Sporotrichosis
  • Sporothrix
  • Identification
  • Histopathology
  • Molecular diagnosis
  • Antifungal susceptibility