Pedestrian wind comfort near a super-tall building with various configurations in an urban-like setting

Abstract

Pedestrian wind comfort near a 400 m super-tall building in high and low ambient wind speeds, referred to as Windy and Calm climates, is evaluated by conducting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The super-tall building has 15 different configurations and is located at the center of 50 m medium-rise buildings in an urban-like setting. Pedestrian level mean wind speeds near the super-tall building is obtained from three-dimensional (3D), steady-state, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based simulations for five incident wind directions (θ = 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 90°, 180°) that are subsequently compared with two wind comfort criteria specified for Calm and Windy climates. Results show a 1.53 times increase in maximum mean wind speed in the urban area after the construction of a square-shaped super-tall building. The escalated mean wind speeds result in a 23%–15% and 36%–29% decrease in the area with “acceptable wind comfort” in Calm and Windy climates, respectively. The area with pedestrian wind comfort varies significantly with building configuration and incident wind direction, for example, the configurations with sharp corners, large plan aspect ratios and, frontal areas and the orientation consistently show a strong dependency on incident wind direction except for the one with rounded plan shapes. Minor aerodynamic modifications such as corner modifications and aerodynamically-shaped configurations such as tapered and setback buildings show promise in improving pedestrian wind comfort in Windy climate.

References

  1. AIJ (n.d.). Guidebook for CFD Predictions of Urban Wind Environment. Architectural Institute of Japan. Available at https://www.aij.or.jp/jpn/publish/cfdguide/index_e.htm. Accessed 8 Apr 2020.

  2. Arens E, Ballanti D, Bennett C, Guldman S, White B (1989). Developing the San Francisco wind ordinance and its guidelines for compliance. Building and Environment, 24: 297–303.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Beranek WJ (1984). Wind environment around single buildings of rectangular shape. Heron, 29(1): 2–29.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Blocken B, Stathopoulos T, Carmeliet J (2007a). CFD simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer: wall function problems. Atmospheric Environment, 41: 238–252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Blocken B, Carmeliet J, Stathopoulos T (2007b). CFD evaluation of wind speed conditions in passages between parallel buildings—effect of wall-function roughness modifications for the atmospheric boundary layer flow. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95: 941–962.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Blocken B, Persoon J (2009). Pedestrian wind comfort around a large football stadium in an urban environment: CFD simulation, validation and application of the new Dutch wind nuisance standard. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 97: 255–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Blocken B, Stathopoulos T (2013). CFD simulation of pedestrian-level wind conditions around buildings: Past achievements and prospects. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 121: 138–145.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Blocken B (2014). 50 years of Computational Wind Engineering: Past, present and future. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 129: 69–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Blocken B, Stathopoulos T, van Beeck JPAJ (2016). Pedestrian-level wind conditions around buildings: Review of wind-tunnel and CFD techniques and their accuracy for wind comfort assessment. Building and Environment, 100: 50–81.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Blocken B (2018). LES over RANS in building simulation for outdoor and indoor applications: A foregone conclusion? Building Simulation, 11: 821–870.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cebeci T, Bradshaw P (1977). Momentum Transfer in Boundary Layers. Washington, DC: Hemisphere Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Cheng V, Ng E, Chan C, Givoni B (2012). Outdoor thermal comfort study in a sub-tropical climate: a longitudinal study based in Hong Kong. International Journal of Biometeorology, 56: 43–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Davis PL, Rinehimer AT, Uddin M (2012). A comparison of RANS-based turbulence modeling for flow over a wall-mounted square cylinder. In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual Conference of the CFD Society of Canada, Canmore, Canada.

  14. Du Y, Mak CM, Kwok K, Tse KT, Lee TC, et al. (2017). New criteria for assessing low wind environment at pedestrian level in Hong Kong. Building and Environment, 123: 23–36.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Durgin FH (1989). Proposed guidelines for pedestrian level wind studies for Boston—Comparison of results from 12 studies. Building and Environment, 24: 305–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Durgin FH (1992). Pedestrian level wind studies at the Wright brothers facility. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 44: 2253–2264.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Durgin FH (1997). Pedestrian level wind criteria using the equivalent average. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 66: 215–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Dutton R, Isyumov N (1990). Reduction of tall building motion by aerodynamic treatments. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 36: 739–747.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Franke J, Hellsten A, Schlunzen KH, Carissimo B (2011). The COST 732 Best Practice Guideline for CFD simulation of flows in the urban environment: a summary. International Journal of Environment and Pollution, 44: 419–427.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Gandemer J (1978a). Aerodynamic studies of built-up areas made by C.S.T.B. at Nantes, France. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 3: 227–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gandemer J (1978b). Discomfort due to wind near buildings: Aerodynamic concepts. Gaithersburg, MD, USA: National Bureau of Standards.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Grimmond CSB, Oke TR (1999). Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 38: 1262–1292.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Hunt JCR, Poulton EC, Mumford JC (1976). The effects of wind on people; New criteria based on wind tunnel experiments. Building and Environment, 11: 15–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Irwin HPAH (1981). A simple omnidirectional sensor for wind-tunnel studies of pedestrian-level winds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 7: 219–239.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Isyumov N (1978). Studies of the pedestrian level wind environment at the boundary layer wind tunnel laboratory of the University of Western Ontario. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 3: 187–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Jackson PS (1978). The evaluation of windy environments. Building and Environment, 13: 251–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Jamieson NJ, Carpenter P, Cenek PD (1992). The effect of architectural detailing on pedestrian level wind speeds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 44: 2301–2312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Janssen WD, Blocken B, van Hooff T (2013). Pedestrian wind comfort around buildings: Comparison of wind comfort criteria based on whole-flow field data for a complex case study. Building and Environment, 59: 547–562.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kamei I, Maruta E (1979). Study on wind environmental problems caused around buildings in Japan. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 4: 307–331.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Kawai H (1998). Effect of corner modifications on aeroelastic instabilities of tall buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 74–76: 719–729.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Kim Y, Jun K (2010). Characteristics of aerodynamic forces and pressures on square plan buildings with height variations. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 98: 449–465.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Kim YC, Tamura Y, Tanaka H, Ohtake K, Bandi EK, Yoshida A (2014). Wind-induced responses of super-tall buildings with various atypical building shapes. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 133: 191–199.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Kim YC, Bandi EK, Yoshida A, Tamura Y (2015a). Response characteristics of super-tall buildings — Effects of number of sides and helical angle. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 145: 252–262.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Kim YC, Tamura Y, Yoon SW (2015b). Effect of taper on fundamental aeroelastic behaviors of super-tall buildings. Wind and Structures, 20: 527–548.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Kwok KCS (1988). Effect of building shape on wind-induced response of tall building. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 28: 381–390.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Launder BE, Spalding DB (1983). The numerical computation of turbulent flows. In: Patankar SV, Pollard A, Singhal AK, Vanka SP (eds), Numerical Prediction of Flow, Heat Transfer, Turbulence and Combustion. New York: Pergamon Press. pp. 96–116.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Lawson TV (1978). The wind content of the built environment. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 3: 93–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lee BE, Hussain M (1979). The ground level wind environment around the Sheffield University arts tower. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 4: 333–341.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Lin M, Hang J, Li Y, Luo Z, Sandberg M (2014). Quantitative ventilation assessments of idealized urban canopy layers with various urban layouts and the same building packing density. Building and Environment, 79: 152–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Melbourne WH (1971). Problem of wind flow at base of tall buildings. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Internatinal Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Tokyo, Japan.

  41. Melbourne WH (1978a). Wind environment studies in Australia. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 3: 201–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Melbourne WH (1978b). Criteria for environmental wind conditions. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 3: 241–249.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Mochida A, Lun IYF (2008). Prediction of wind environment and thermal comfort at pedestrian level in urban area. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 96: 1498–1527.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Murakami S, Uehara K, Komine H (1979). Amplification of wind speed at ground level due to construction of high-rise building in urban area. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 4: 343–370.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Murakami S, Iwasa Y, Morikawa Y (1986). Study on acceptable criteria for assessing wind environment at ground level based on residents’ diaries. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 24: 1–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Ng E (2009). Policies and technical guidelines for urban planning of high-density cities — air ventilation assessment (AVA) of Hong Kong. Building and Environment, 44: 1478–1488.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Penwarden AD, Wisse AFE (1975). Wind environment around buildings. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Penwarden AD (1973). Acceptable wind speeds in towns. Building Science, 8: 259–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Ramponi R, Blocken B, de Coo LB, Janssen WD (2015). CFD simulation of outdoor ventilation of generic urban configurations with different urban densities and equal and unequal street widths. Building and Environment, 92: 152–166.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Shih TH, Liou WW, Shabbir A, Yang Z, Zhu J (1995). A new k-ϵ eddy viscosity model for high Reynolds number turbulent flows. Computers & Fluids, 24: 227–238.

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Stathopoulos T (1985). Wind environmental conditions around tall buildings with chamfered corners. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 21: 71–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Stathopoulos T, Wu H (2004). Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for pedestrian winds. In: Proceedings of Structures 2004: Building on the Past, Securing the Future.

  53. Stathopoulos T, Wu H, Bédard C (1992). Wind environment around buildings: A knowledge-based approach. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 44: 2377–2388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Tamura Y, Tanaka H, Ohtake K, Nakai M, Kim Y (2010). Aerodynamic characteristics of tall building models with various unconventional configurations. In: Proceedings of Structures Congress 2010.

  55. Tanaka H, Tamura Y, Ohtake K, Nakai M, Kim YC (2012). Experimental investigation of aerodynamic forces and wind pressures acting on tall buildings with various unconventional configurations. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 107–108: 179–191.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Tanaka H, Tamura Y, Ohtake K, Nakai M, Kim YC, Bandi EK (2013). Aerodynamic and flow characteristics of tall buildings with various unconventional configurations. International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, 2: 213–228.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Tominaga Y, Mochida A, Shirasawa T, Yoshie R, Kataoka H, Harimoto K, Nozu T (2004). Cross comparisons of CFD results of wind environment at pedestrian level around a high-rise building and within a building complex. Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering, 3: 63–70.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Tominaga Y, Mochida A, Yoshie R, Kataoka H, Nozu T, Yoshikawa M, Shirasawa T (2008). AIJ guidelines for practical applications of CFD to pedestrian wind environment around buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 96: 1749–1761.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Tsang CW, Kwok KCS, Hitchcock PA (2012). Wind tunnel study of pedestrian level wind environment around tall buildings: Effects of building dimensions, separation and podium. Building and Environment, 49: 167–181.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Tse KT, Hitchcock PA, Kwok KCS, Thepmongkorn S, Chan CM (2009). Economic perspectives of aerodynamic treatments of square tall buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 97: 455–467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Tse KT, Weerasuriya AU, Zhang X, Li S, Kwok KCS (2017a). Pedestrian-level wind environment around isolated buildings under the influence of twisted wind flows. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 162: 12–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Tse KT, Zhang X, Weerasuriya AU, Li SW, Kwok KCS, Mak CM, Niu J (2017b). Adopting ‘lift-up’ building design to improve the surrounding pedestrian-level wind environment. Building and Environment, 117: 154–165.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Uematsu Y, Yamada M (1991). Application of infrared thermography to the evaluation of pedestrian-level winds around buildings. In: Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Beijing, China.

  64. Uematsu Y, Yamada M, Higashiyama H, Orimo T (1992). Effects of the corner shape of high-rise buildings on the pedestrian-level wind environment with consideration for mean and fluctuating wind speeds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 44: 2289–2300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. van Druenen T, van Hooff T, Montazeri H, Blocken B (2019). CFD evaluation of building geometry modifications to reduce pedestrian-level wind speed. Building and Environment, 163: 106293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. van Hooff T, Blocken B (2010). Coupled urban wind flow and indoor natural ventilation modelling on a high-resolution grid: A case study for the Amsterdam ArenA stadium. Environmental Modelling & Software, 25: 51–65.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Wang T, Wu YY, Cheung TF, Lam KS (2001). A study of surface ozone and the relation to complex wind flow in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment, 35: 3203–3215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Weerasuriya AU, Tse KT, Zhang X, Kwok KCS (2018). Integrating twisted wind profiles to Air Ventilation Assessment (AVA): The current status. Building and Environment, 135: 297–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Willemsen E, Wisse JA (2007). Design for wind comfort in The Netherlands: Procedures, criteria and open research issues. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95: 1541–1550.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Wong MS, Nichol JE, To PH, Wang J (2010). A simple method for designation of urban ventilation corridors and its application to urban heat island analysis. Building and Environment, 45: 1880–1889.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Wu H, Stathopoulos T (1993). Wind-tunnel techniques for assessment of pedestrian-level winds. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 119: 1920–1936.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Wu H (1994). Pedestrian-level wind environment around buildings. PhD Thesis, Concordia University, Canada.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Xu X, Yang Q, Yoshida A, Tamura Y (2017). Characteristics of pedestrian-level wind around super-tall buildings with various configurations. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 166: 61–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Yim SHL, Fung JCH, Lau AKH, Kot SC (2009). Air ventilation impacts of the “wall effect” resulting from the alignment of high-rise buildings. Atmospheric Environment, 43: 4982–4994.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Yip C, Chang WL, Yeung KH, Yu IT (2007). Possible meteorological influence on the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) community outbreak at Amoy Gardens, Hong Kong. Journal of environmental health, 70(3), 39–47.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Yoshie R, Mochida A, Tominaga Y, Kataoka H, Harimoto K, Nozu T, Shirasawa T (2007). Cooperative project for CFD prediction of pedestrian wind environment in the Architectural Institute of Japan. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95: 1551–1578.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Zhang X, Tse KT, Weerasuriya AU, Li SW, Kwok KCS, et al. (2017). Evaluation of pedestrian wind comfort near ‘lift-up’ buildings with different aspect ratios and central core modifications. Building and Environment, 124: 245–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Zhang X, Tse KT, Weerasuriya AU, Kwok KCS, Niu J, Lin Z, Mak CM (2018). Pedestrian-level wind conditions in the space underneath lift-up buildings. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 179: 58–69.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Zhang X, Weerasuriya AU, Lu B, Tse KT, Liu CH, Tamura Y (2020). Pedestrian-level wind environment near a super-tall building with unconventional configurations in a regular urban area. Building Simulation, 13: 439–456.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The work described in this paper was supported by a grant from the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 16207118) and the General Research Fund (GRF) of Hong Kong Research Grants Council (RGC) HKU 1725616.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Asiri Umenga Weerasuriya.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhang, X., Weerasuriya, A.U., Zhang, X. et al. Pedestrian wind comfort near a super-tall building with various configurations in an urban-like setting. Build. Simul. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12273-020-0658-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • pedestrian wind comfort
  • super-tall building
  • building configuration
  • urban wind environment
  • computational fluid dynamics simulation