Energy evaluation of residential buildings: Performance gap analysis incorporating uncertainties in the evaluation methods
- 85 Downloads
Calculation and measurement-based energy performance evaluations of the same building often provide different results. This difference is referred as “the performance gap”. However, a large performance gap may not necessarily mean that there are flaws in the building or deviations from the intended design. The causes for the performance gap can be analysed by calibrating the simulation model to measured data. In this paper, an approach is introduced for verifying compliance with energy performance criteria of residential buildings. The approach is based on a performance gap analysis that takes the uncertainties in the energy evaluation methods into consideration. The scope is to verify building energy performance through simulation and analysis of measured data, identifying any performance gap due to deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building based on performance gap analysis. In the approach, a simulation model is calibrated to match the heat loss coefficient of the building envelope [kWh/K] instead of the measured energy. The introduced approach is illustrated using a single-family residential building. The heat loss coefficient was found useful towards identifying any deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building. The case study indicated that the method uncertainty was important to consider in the performance gap analysis and that the proposed approach is applicable even when the performance gap appears to be non-existing.
Keywordsperformance gap energy signature calibration simulation design criteria
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This study was partly conducted during the project SBHN— Sustainable Buildings for the High North— supported by the European Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument of the European Union under the Kolarctic ENPI CBC programme. The authors would like to thank Mark Murphy, Umeå University, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, for his assistance with the simulation program IDA ICE.
- ASHRAE (2015}). ASHRAE Handbook—Fundamentarls. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refridgeratiing and Air-conditioning EngineersGoogle Scholar
- Bülow-Hübe H (2001). Energy-Efficient Window Systems—Effects on Energy Use and Daylight in Buildings. Lund: KFS AB.Google Scholar
- EQUA Simulation AB (2013). User Manual—IDA Indoor Climate and Energy, Version 4.5. Solna, Sweden: EQUA Simulation AB.Google Scholar
- EQUA Simulation AB (2017). IDA Indoor Climate and Energy. Available at http://www.equa.se/en/ida-ice. Accessed 20 Jan 2017.Google Scholar
- Institute for Energy and Transport. (2012). Photovoltaic Geographical Information System (PVGIS). European Comission. Available at http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/apps4/pvest.php. Accessed 26 Sept 2017.Google Scholar
- ISO (2017). Thermal performance of buildings—Transmission and ventilation heat transfer coefficients —Calculation method. Geneva: International Organization for Standardization.Google Scholar
- Lidelöw S, Flodberg Munck K (2015). Byggentreprenörens energisignatur. Luleå och Malmö: NCC Construction Sverige och Luleå tekniska universitet. (in Swedish)Google Scholar
- Mahdavi A (2011). The human dimension of building performance simulation. In: Proceedings of the 12th International IBPSA Building Simulation Conference, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
- Meteotest (2014). Meteonorm 7.1. Available at http://meteonorm.com. Accessed 10 Jan 2014.Google Scholar
- Östin R, Eklund E, Johansson C (2012). Energieffektivt byggande i kallt klimat. CERBOF. (in Swedish)Google Scholar
- Reddy T (2006). Literature review on calibration of building energy simulation programs: Uses, problems, procedures, uncertainty, and tools. ASHRAE Transactions, 112(1): 226–240.Google Scholar
- Sahlin P, Bring A (1991). IDA Solver—A tool for building and energy systems simulation. In: Proceedings of International IBPSA Building Simulation Conference (pp. 339–348), Nice, France.Google Scholar
- Schild P, Mysen M (2009). Technical Note AIVC 65—Recommendations on Specific Fan Power and Fan System Efficiency. Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme, International Energy Agency.Google Scholar
- Schultz L (2003). Normalårskorrigering av energianvändningen i byggnader - en jämförelse mellan två metoder. Effektiv. (in Swedish)Google Scholar
- The Swedish National Board of Housing (2012). Handbok för energihushållning enligt Boverkets byggregler - utgåva två. the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning.Google Scholar
- The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (2007). Indata för energiberäkningar i kontor och småhus. En sammanställning av brukarrelaterad indata för elanvändning, personvärme och tappvarmvatten. The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket).Google Scholar
- The Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (2015). BBR 22 - Boverkets föreskrifter om ändring i verkets byggregler (2011:6) - föreskrifter och allmänna råd. The Swedish National Board of Housing Building and Planning (Boverket).Google Scholar
- Torcellini P, Pless S, Deru M, Crawley D (2006). Zero energy buildings: A critical look at the definition. ACEEE Summer Study. Pacific Grove, CA, USA: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.Google Scholar