Table 1 Therapeutic avenues to target the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. VNS, vagus nerve stimulation; nAChR, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

From: Implications for Neuromodulation Therapy to Control Inflammation and Related Organ Dysfunction in COVID-19

Strategy Agent/technology
Pharmacological -Nicotine
-GTS-21, a nAChR agonist
Neuromodulation -Implantable cuff based VNS
-Transcutaneous non-invasive VNS via neck or ear
-Electroacupuncture
-Splenic nerve stimulation