Intratumoral Heterogeneity of Frameshift Mutations of GLI1 Encoding a Hedgehog Signaling Protein in Colorectal Cancers
- 185 Downloads
GLI1 is a transcription factor for hedgehog signaling that plays a crucial role in signaling pathways for controlling cell proliferation, alterations of which are known to contribute to tumorigenesis. Aim of this study was to explore whether GLI1 gene is mutated in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC). In a public database, we found that GLI1 had a G7 mononucleotide repeat in the coding sequences that could be a mutation target in the cancers with microsatellite instability (MSI). In this study, we analyzed frameshift mutation of GLI1 in 79 GCs and 129 CRCs (high MSI (MSI-H) or microsatellite stable (MSS)) by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing. We found 10 frameshift mutations in the repeat, nine for CRCs and one for GC. All of the mutations were detected in cancers with MSI-H and there was a statistical difference in the frameshift mutation frequencies between the cancers with MSI-H (10/113) and MSS (0/90). We also analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the frameshift mutation in 16 CRCs and found that the mutations exhibited regional ITH in three of the CRCs (18.8%). Our data indicate GLI1 harbored not only frameshift mutation but also its mutational ITH, which together could be a feature of GC and CRC with MSI-H.
KeywordsGLI1 Frameshift mutation Colon cancer Microsatellite instability Intratumoral heterogeneity
This work was supported by a grant from National Research Foundation of Korea (2012R1A5A2047939).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflicts of Interest
None to declare.
- 11.Calin GA, Gafà R, Tibiletti MG, Herlea V, Becheanu G, Cavazzini L, Barbanti-Brodano G, Nenci I, Negrini M, Lanza G (2000) Genetic progression in microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) colon cancers correlates with clinico-pathological parameters: a study of the TGRbetaRII, BAX, hMSH3, hMSH6, IGFIIR and BLM genes. Int J Cancer 89:230–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 20.Athar M, Li C, Tang X, Chi S, Zhang X, Kim AL, Tyring SK, Kopelovich L, Hebert J, Epstein EH Jr, Bickers DR, Xie J (2004) Inhibition of smoothened signaling prevents ultraviolet B-induced basal cell carcinomas through regulation of Fas expression and apoptosis. Cancer Res 64:7545–7552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar