Finite Element Model of a High-Stature Male Pedestrian for Simulating Car-to-Pedestrian Collisions


Among road traffic deaths, pedestrian accounted for 22 % of all fatalities in the world, 26 % in Europe, and 22 % in the U.S. To investigate the injury risk of the high-stature population, a Finite Element (FE) model corresponding to a male 95th percentile (M95) pedestrian was developed and validated in this study. The model mesh was obtained by morphing the Global Human Body Models Consortium male 50th percentile pedestrian model to the reconstructed geometry of a recruited high-stature human subject. The lower extremity, shoulder, and upper body of the FE model were validated against the Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) test data recorded in valgus bending, lateral, and anterior-lateral blunt impact tests. Then, a vehicle-pedestrian impact simulation was performed using the whole-body model. In the component validations, the M95 pedestrian model showed higher stiffness than the PMHS test corridors developed for 50th percentile male. The kinematic trajectories predicted by the FE model were well-correlated to the corresponding PMHS test data in whole-body validation. Therefore, the model could be used to investigate various pedestrian accidents and/or to improve safety regulations and vehicle front-end design for high-stature pedestrian protection.

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anterior cruciate ligament


anthropometric test device


car-to-pedestrian collisions


center of gravity

Euro NCAP:

european new car assessment program


finite element


global human body models consortium


post mortem human surrogate


lateral collateral ligament


male 50th percentile pedestrian simplified model


male 95th percentile


male 95th percentile pedestrian simplified model


medial collateral ligament


non-uniform rational basis spline


first thoracic vertebra


telemetry data acquisition system


wrap around distance


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Funding for this study was provided by the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC). All findings and views reported in this manuscript are based on the opinions of the authors and do not necessarily represent the consensus or views of the funding organization.

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Correspondence to Costin D. Untaroiu.

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Pak, W., Meng, Y., Schap, J. et al. Finite Element Model of a High-Stature Male Pedestrian for Simulating Car-to-Pedestrian Collisions. Int.J Automot. Technol. 20, 445–453 (2019).

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Key Words

  • Finite element modeling
  • Impact biomechanics
  • Pedestrian protection