, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 140–147 | Cite as

Systematic studies in Neotropical Rinorea (Violaceae): Two new sections and a new generic segregate

  • Gregory A. Wahlert
  • Saul E. Hoyos-Goméz
  • Harvey E. BallardJr


Se ha demostrado que Rinorea, el segundo género más rico en especies de la família Violaceae, es polifilético con cuatro clados independientes, recuperados en estúdios filogenéticos. Entre estos clados está el grupo de Rinorea crenata, que está compuesto por tres especies neotropicales. Este grupo ha mostrado en filogenias a nível de família y género estar resuelto por fuera del gran clado representado por Rinorea s. str.. Basado en filogenias moleculares, evidencias morfológicas y anatómicas, un nuevo género, Bribria, es segregado de Rinorea s. str. y descrito con las nuevas combinaciones realizadas para estas trés especies: Bribria apiculata, Bribria crenata, y Bribria oraria. Adicionalmente, dos nuevas secciones de Rinorea s. str. son descritas para acomodar las especies neotropicales faltantes: Rinorea sect. Rinorea y Rinorea sect. Pubiflora, los cuales corresponden al Grupo IIa Rinorea y Grupo IIc Pubiflora, respectivamente, en la monografía Neotropical de Rinorea de W. H. A. Hekking.


Fusispermum Neotropics new combination new genus Rinorea taxonomy Violaceae 


Rinorea, the second most species-rich genus in the Violaceae, has been shown to be polyphyletic with four separate clades recovered in phylogenetic studies. Among these clades is the Rinorea crenata group, which is composed of three Neotropical species. This group has been shown in family- and genus-level molecular phylogenies to be resolved outside of a large clade representing Rinorea s.str. Based on phylogenetic, morphological, and anatomical evidence, Bribria, a new genus, is segregated from Rinorea s.str. and described, with new combinations made for its three species: Bribria apiculata, Bribria crenata, and Bribria oraria. In addition, two new sections in Rinorea s.str. are described to accommodate the remaining Neotropical species: Rinorea sect. Rinorea and Rinorea sect. Pubiflora, which correspond to Group IIa Rinorea and Group IIc Pubiflora, respectively, in W. H. A. Hekking’s monograph of Neotropical Rinorea.



We grateful to the many herbarium curators and collection managers who provided access to specimens needed for this study. Funding was provided to GAW by the Graduate Student Senate, Ohio University, to HEB by the National Science Foundation (DEB-0211054), and to SEHG by Fulbright Colombia, Corporación Fragmento, University of Missouri–Saint Louis, Whitney R. Harris World Ecology Center, The Madidi Project–Bolivia (Missouri Botanical Garden), and Idea Wild. We also want to thank Peter F. Stevens, Richard C. Keating, Peter Møller Jørgensen, David Bogler, Sara Fuentes, and Juan Carlos Penagos (Missouri Botanical Garden). Use of the scanning electron microscope was provided by National Science Foundation (NSF) grant DBI-MRI 0958873 to David Bogler. We are also thankful for the efforts of Juliana de Paula-Souza and an anonymous reviewer who provided many helpful comments that improved the paper. We appreciate the permission granted from the New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx, NY, for the use of W. H. A. Hekking’s illustrations from his 1988 treatment of Neotropical Rinorea.

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Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cheadle Center for Biodiversity and Ecological RestorationUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Universidad de AntioquiaMedellínColombia
  3. 3.Department of Environmental and Plant BiologyOhio UniversityAthensUSA

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