, Volume 70, Issue 1, pp 31–39 | Cite as

The hybrid nature of Danaea plicata (Marattiaceae), a Costa Rican endemic

  • Robbin C. Moran
  • Michael H. Grayum


We present evidence that Danaea plicata, endemic to Costa Rica, is a hybrid between D. carillensis and D. crispa. The laminae of D. plicata are intermediate in several morphological characters between the two putative parents, and the spores of D. plicata are misshapen and collapsed. The stomatal density of D. plicata is intermediate between that of D. crispa, which has no stomata, and D. carillensis. Circumstantial evidence also supports hybrid origin: D. plicata occurs only within the elevational range of its putative parents, and it is often found growing with them. This is the second report of a hybrid in Danaea. A lectotype is designated for D. plicata .


Ferns floristics hybrids systematics 



We thank the following colleagues: Germinal Rouhan for searching at P for various type specimens of Hermann Christ; Paulo Labiak for generating the Additional Specimens Examined section from our Excel database; Fernando Matos for preparing the dot-distribution maps from our Excel database; Li-Bing Zhang for informing us about the hybrid Angiopteris otoi; and James Eddie Watkins for allowing us to use his photograph in Fig. 3B.

Literature cited

  1. Bierhorst, D. W. 1971. Morphology of vascular plants. The Macmillan Company, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell, D. H. 1911. The Eusporangiate: the comparative morphology of the Ophioglossaceae and Marattiaceae. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 140, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Camus, J. M. & B. Pérez-García. 1995. Danaea. Pp. 48–50. In: G. Davidse, M. Sousa S. & S. Knapp (gen. eds.) & R. C. Moran & R. Riba (eds. en pteridofitas), Flora Mesoamericana, vol. 1, Psilotaceae a Salviniaceae. Univ. Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria.Google Scholar
  4. Christ, H. 1910. Filices Costaricensis. Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis 8(157–159): 17–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christenhusz, M. J. M. 2006. Three new species of Danaea (Marattiaceae) from French Guiana and the Lesser Antilles. Acta Botanica Fennici 43: 212–219.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 2010. Danaea (Marattiaceae) revisited: biodiversity, a new classification and ten new species of a neotropical fern genus. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 360–385.Google Scholar
  7. ——— & H. Tuomisto. 2006. Five new species of Danaea (Marattiaceae) from Peru and a new status for D. elliptica. Kew Bulletin 61: 17–30.Google Scholar
  8. ———, ———, J. Metzgar & K. M. Pryer. 2008. Evolutionary relationships within the neotropical, eusporangiate fern genus Danaea (Marattiaceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46: 34–48.Google Scholar
  9. Copeland, E. B. 1938. Genera Hymenophyllacearum. The Philippine Journal of Science 67(1): 1–110 + 11 plates.Google Scholar
  10. Gómez, L. D. 1982. A filmy Danaea. American Fern Journal 72: 63–64.Google Scholar
  11. Graham, R., D. W. Lee & K. Norstog. 1993. Physical and ultrastructural basis of blue leaf iridescence in two Neotropical ferns. American Journal of Botany 80: 198–203.Google Scholar
  12. Hill, C. R. & J. M. Camus. 1986. Evolutionary cladistics of marattialean ferns. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 14: 219–300.Google Scholar
  13. Hsieh, T-H., Y-H. Chang, W-L. Chiou & Y-M. Huang. 2008. Chromosome numbers in five species of the Marattiaceae in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 23: 335–339.Google Scholar
  14. Lee, D. W. & J. B. Lowry. 1975. Physical basis and ecological significance of iridescence in blue plants. Nature 254: 50-51.Google Scholar
  15. Lovis, J. D. 1977. Evolutionary patterns and processes in ferns. Pp. 229–415. In: R. D. Preston & W. H. Woolhouse (eds.), Advances in Botanical Research, vol. 4. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Moran, R. C. 2004. A natural history of ferns. Timber Press, Portland Oregon.Google Scholar
  17. Murdock, A. G. 2008. Phylogeny of marattioid ferns (Marattiaceae): inferring a root in the absence of a closely related outgroup. American Journal of Botany 95: 626–641.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Quantum GIS Development Team. 2013. Quantum GIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. Scholar
  19. Rojas, A. F. 2006. Una nueva especie de helecho del género Danaea (Marattiales: Marattiaceae) endémica de Costa Rica. Revista de Biología Tropical 54: 1057–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ———. 2009. Novelties in Danaea moritziana complex (Marattiaceae) from Colombia. Métodos en Ecología y Sistemática 4: 8–19.Google Scholar
  21. Rolleri, C. H. 2004. Revisión del género Danaea (Marattiaceae-Pteridophyta). Darwiniana 42: 217–301.Google Scholar
  22. Smith, A. R. 1995. Marattiaceae. Pp. 206–209. In: J. A. Steyermark, P. E. Berry & B. K. Holst (gen. eds), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana. Volume 2, Pteridophytes, Spermatophytes Acanthaceae–Araceae.Google Scholar
  23. Tryon, R. M. & A. F. Tryon. 1982. Ferns and allied plants, with special reference to tropical America. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  24. Tuomisto, H. & R. C. Moran. 2001. Marattiaceae. Pp. 21–68. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, no. 66. 6. Ophioglossaceae – 10. Gleicheniaceae. Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  25. Wagner, W. H. Jr., F. S. Wagner & W. C. Taylor. 1986. Detecting abortive spores in herbarium specimens of sterile hybrids. American Fern Journal 76: 129–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Walker, T. G. 1966. A cytotaxonomic survey of the pteridophytes of Jamaica. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 66: 169–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zhaorong, H. & M. J. M. Christenhusz. 2013. Pp. 82–89. In: Z. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Hong (eds), Flora of China, vols. 2 & 3. Lycopodiaceae – Polypodiaceae. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The New York Botanical GardenBronxUSA
  2. 2.The Missouri Botanical GardenSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations