Advertisement

Germination ecology of the aromatic halophyte Artemisia caerulescens L.: influence of abiotic factors and seed after-ripening time

  • Tiziana LombardiEmail author
  • Stefano Bedini
  • Andrea Bertacchi
Article

Abstract

Artemisia caerulescens L. is a rare aromatic perennial shrub growing in saline or brackish environments of the central and western part of the Mediterranean region. On the other hand, despite its distribution in unstable and highly selective environments such as salt marshes, no data are available on its ecological adaptability or on its growth strategy. In an effort to fill these gaps, we performed three experiments in order to evaluate the effects of selected environmental abiotic factors on the seed germination of A. caerulescens. In the first experiment, we determined the effect of different temperatures, photoperiod regimes and salinity on the germination of 120 days old seeds. Secondly, we tested the germination behaviour of the seeds in relation to seed after-ripening time and salinity. The results showed that a temperature regime of 10/20°C and a photothermoperiod of 12/12 h were optimal conditions for seed germination. Salinity affected the final germination rate and mean time to germination. Until 60 days of after-ripening, the seeds exhibited a primary dormancy state. Then, their germination performance was affected by seed after-ripening time and salinity. The data obtained in this study allow us to outline a fairly accurate picture of the ecological requirements of A. caerulescens during germination and of the degree of viability of its seeds at least in the first year of their life. The significant different susceptibility of the seeds to salinity leads to the conclusion that the spread of this species by seeds strongly depends on soil salinity fluctuations. Knowledge of optimal germination requirements could also be useful for the possible use of plant seeds as propagation material in restoration and biodiversity conservation programmes.

Keywords

Artemisia caerulescens germination rate seed dormancy salinity halophyte aromatic plant 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financially supported by grants from the University of Pisa.

References

  1. Aharizad S, Zaefizadeh M, Mehdipour M (2013) Salinity tolerance of hull-less barley genotypes in germination stage. World Essays J 1:1–6Google Scholar
  2. Arrigoni PV (2007) Il paesaggio vegetale In Il Parco Regionale della Maremma e il suo territorio, guida per conoscere e capire. Pacini Ed., Pisa, pp 41–52Google Scholar
  3. Atia A, Debez A, Rabhi M, Athar HU, Abdelly C (2006) Alleviation of salt-induced seed dormancy in the perennial halophyte Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae). Pakistan J Bot 38:1367–1372Google Scholar
  4. Baskin CC, Baskin JM (2014) Seeds: ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  5. Baskin CC, Baskin JM, Meyer SE (1993) Seed dormancy in the Colorado plateau shrub Mahonia fremontii (Berberidaceae) and its ecological and evolutionary implications. SW Naturalist 38: 91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baskin CC, Milberg P, Anderson L, Baskin JM (2001) Seed dormancy breaking and germination requirements of Drosera anglica, an insectivorous species of the Northern Hemisphere. Acta Oecol 12:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bertacchi A, Lombardi T, Tomei PE (2007) Le aree umide salmastre della Tenuta di San Rossore (PI): zonazione e successione delle specie vegetali in relazione alla salinità del suolo. Inter Nos 1 :63–72Google Scholar
  8. Biondi E, Valentini G, Bellomaria B (2000) Essential oil of some halophyle and subhalophyle taxa Artemisia L. from the central European Mediterranean. J Essential Oil Res 12:365–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Biondi E, Burrascano S, Casavecchia S, Copiz R, Del Vico E, Galdenzi D, Gigante D, Lasen C, Spampinato G, Venanzoni R, Zivkovic L, Blasi C (2012) Diagnosis and syntaxonomic interpretation of Annex I Habitats (Dir 92/43/ EEC) in Italy at the alliance level. Pl Sociol 49:5–37Google Scholar
  10. Birendera K, Irendra K, Ekta G, Himanshi M, Singh HP, Muhanad A (2013) Constant and alternating temperature effects on seed germination potential in Artemisia annua L. J Crop Improv 27:636–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chapman VJ (1960) Salt marshes and salt deserts of the world. Interscience Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Cochrane A (2018) Salt and waterlogging stress impacts on seed germination and early seedling growth of selected endemic plant species from Western Australia. Pl Ecol 219:633–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Conti F, Abbate G, Alessandrini A, Blasi C (2005) An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. Palombi, RomaGoogle Scholar
  14. Dítě D, Dítětová Z, Eliáš P, Šuvada R (2018) Rare plant species of salt marshes of the Croatian coast. Hacquetia 17:221–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Euro+Med (2006–[continuously updated]): Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. Available at http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed (Accessed 1 October 2018)
  16. Farooq M, Basra SMA, Hafeez K, Ahmad N (2005) Thermal hardening, a new seed vigor enhancement tool in rice. J Integ Pl Biol 47:187–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finch-Savage WE, Leubner-Metzger G (2006) Seed dormancy and the control of germination. New Phytol 171:501–523CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Fiori A (1984) Artemisia In Nuova Flora analitica d’Italia Edagricole Bologna. pp 638–639Google Scholar
  19. Gul B, Ansari R, Flowers TJ, Khan MA (2013) Germination strategies of halophyte seeds under salinity. Environm Exp Bot 92:4–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gutterman Y (1994) Strategies of seed dispersal and germination in plants inhabiting deserts. Bot Rev 60:373–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Horvatic S (1934) Flora i vegetacija otoka Paga. Prirodosl. Istra??. Jugosl. Akad. 19Google Scholar
  22. Huang Z, Gutterman Y (1999) Water absorption by mucilaginous achenes of Artemisia monosperma: floating and germination as affected by salt concentrations. Israel J Pl Sci 47:27–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Huang ZY, Gutterman Y (2000) Comparison of germination strategies of Artemisia ordosica with its two congeners from deserts of China and Israel. Acta Bot Sin 42:71–80Google Scholar
  24. Ishikawa SI, Kachi N (2000) Differential salt tolerance of two Artemisia species growing in contrasting coastal habitats. Ecol Res 15:241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kaligarič M, Škornik S (2006) Halophile vegetation of the Slovenian seacoast: Thero-Salicornietea and Spartinetea maritimae. Hacquetia 5:25–36Google Scholar
  26. Khan MA, Gul B (2006) Halophyte seed germination. In Khan MA, Weber DJ (eds) Ecophysiology of high salinity tolerant plants. Springer, The NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Khan MA, Gulzar S (2003) Light, salinity, and temperature effects o the seed germination of perennial grasses. Amer J Bot 90:131–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Khan MA, Ungar IA (1997) Effects of light, salinity, and thermoperiod on the seed germination of halophytes. Canad J Bot 75:835–841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Khan MA, Ungar IA (1999) Effect of salinity on the seed germination of Triglochin maritima under various temperature regimes. Great Basin Naturalist 59: 44–150.Google Scholar
  30. Koller D (1969) The physiology of dormancy and survival of plants in desert environments. Symp Soc Exp Biol 23:449–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Koller D, Sachs M, Negbi M (1964) Germination – regulating mechanisms in some desert seeds, VII Artemisia monosperma. Pl Cell Physiol 5:85–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li Y (2008) Effect of salt stress on seed germination and seedling growth of three salinity plants. Pakistan J Biol Sci 11:1268–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lombardi T, Bedini S, Onnis A (1996) The germination characteristics of a population of Zannichellia palustris subsp, pedicellata. Aquatic Bot 54:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lombardi T, Fochetti T, Onnis A (1998) Germination of Briza maxima L. seeds: effects of temperature, light, salinity and seed harvesting time. Seed Sci Technol 26:463–470Google Scholar
  35. Mariko S, Kachi N, Ishikawa SI, Furukawa A (1992) Germination ecology of coastal plants in relation to salt environment. Ecol Res 7:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Ann Rev Pl Biol 59:651–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rivas-Martınez S, Rivas-Saenz S (2009) Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System, 1996–2019 Phytosociological Research Center, Spain. Available at http://www.globalbioclimatics.org
  38. Ruan S, Xue Q, Thlkowska K (2002) Effect of seed priming on germination and health of rice (Oryza sativa L ) seeds. Seed Sci Technol 30:451–458Google Scholar
  39. Sabo DG, Johnson GV, Martin WC, Aldon EF (1979) Germination requirements of 19 species of arid land plants. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Exp Stn, Forest Service, US Dept Agric SEAM USDA Forest Service Program, Res Pap RM-2100, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  40. Sciandrello S, Tomaselli V (2014) Coastal salt-marshes plant communities of the Salicornietea fruticosae class in Apulia (Italy). Biologia 69:53–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sonjak S, Udovic M, Wraber T, Likar M, Regvar M (2009) Diversity of halophytes and identification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising their roots in an abandoned and sustained part of Secovlje salterns. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1847–1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA (1980) Flora Europaea, Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Ungar IA (1982) Germination ecology of halophytes. In Sen DN, Rajpurchit KS (eds) Contributions to the ecology of halophytes. Junk, The Hague, pp 143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ungar IA (1991) Ecophysiology of vascular halophytes. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  45. Ungar IA (1996) Effect of salinity on seed germination, growth and ion accumulation of Atriplex patula (Chenopodiaceae). Amer J Bot 83:604–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ungar IA (2001) Seed banks and seed population dynamics of halophytes. Wetland Ecol Managem 9:499–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vicente MJ, Conesa E, Álvarez-Rogel J, Franco JA, Martínez-Sánchez JJ (2007) Effects of various salts on the germination of three perennial salt marsh species. Aquatic Bot 87:167–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zia S, Khan MA (2004) Effect of light, salinity, and temperature on seed germination of Limonium stocksii. Canad J Bot 82:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Food and Agro-Environmental SciencesUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations