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Folia Geobotanica

, Volume 53, Issue 1, pp 115–131 | Cite as

Phylogenetic relationships and intraspecific diversity of a North Patagonian Fescue: evidence of differentiation and interspecific introgression at peripheral populations

  • A. S. López
  • M. M. Azpilicueta
  • D. R. López
  • G. L. Siffredi
  • P. Marchelli
Article

Abstract

Peripheral sites usually offer suboptimal conditions for species with wide distributions, where expression of phenotypic variability and potential interspecific hybridization might be enhanced. The Patagonian steppe, the largest and southernmost dryland ecosystem in South America, is characterized by natural rangelands dominated by grasses. Festuca pallescens is a keystone species with a wide distribution in Patagonia over diverse environments reaching the extreme arid zones in the Somuncura plateau, a biogeographical island. Our aim is to study the phylogenetic relationships among Festuca pallescens populations as well as between this species and the sympatric F. argentina in North Patagonia. We analysed fourteen populations along a west-east transect of about 500 km in North Patagonia with three types of molecular markers: ITS, chloroplast trnL-F and eight nuclear microsatellites. Bayesian inferences, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses with trnL-F and ITS showed that F. pallescens is related to the Patagonian clade within the Festuca phylogeny. However, the easternmost populations of F. pallescens at Somuncura plateau were highly differentiated from the other populations and clustered with F. argentina (a sympatric species of the Asian-American clade). Principal coordinates analyses and Bayesian clustering performed with nuclear microsatellites as well as morphoanatomical traits, showed an intermediate position of one of these easternmost populations with respect to the two species, suggesting admixture. The high genetic variability observed in these peripheral populations highlight their relevance for conservation and might be indicating the existence of evolutionary processes triggering events of speciation in the Patagonian fescues.

Keywords

Festuca pallescens Festuca argentina Patagonian fescues ITS region trnL-F Microsatellites Hybridization Marginal populations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to H. Moraga and C. Fariña for their invaluable help on fieldwork, F. Umaña for helping with the assembly of Fig. 1 using QGIS, and R. Vidal Russel for helpful discussions on the interpretation of phylogenetic analyses. We specially thank Dr. Cecilia Ezcurra for assisting with the morphoanatomical description of the species and revision of the manuscript. We acknowledge the valuable comments of two anonymous reviewers that greatly improved the first version of this manuscript. This project was financed by PN 1126072 (INTA) and PICT-2012-1392 (Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Técnica). AL was supported by a fellowship from CONICET.

Supplementary material

12224_2017_9304_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.5 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1541 kb)

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Copyright information

© Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.INTA, EEA Bariloche, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental BarilocheBarilocheArgentina
  2. 2.CONICET, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y TécnicasBuenos AiresArgentina
  3. 3.INTA, EF Villa Dolores, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Forestal Villa DoloresCórdobaArgentina

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