Experimental Investigation on Droplet Deformation and Breakup under Uniform DC Electric Field

Abstract

In order to understand the dynamic behaviors of the charged water droplet in the presence of electric field, the experimental investigation is conducted in this paper. A uniform DC electric field is produced by applying high voltage between two parallel copper plates which are placed horizontally in a silicon oil tank. The variation range of the electric field intensity is 0–6.67 kV/cm. Under the influence of the electric field, deformation, motion, breakup and other dynamic behaviors of the charged water droplet with the initial diameter of 5.36 mm are observed and analyzed. Results show that the increase in the electric field intensity results in the elongation of the charged droplet. When the electric field intensity increases to 2.5 kV/cm and 3.0 kV/cm, the droplet would deform into an unstable Taylor cone shape, and then the top of droplet breaks up into some daughter droplets. These daughter droplets move up and down between two copper plates. Further increasing the electric field intensity to 3.67 kV/cm, some of daughter droplets forms a liquid bridge linked the two plates which likes a pearl chain, and then discharge phenomenon occurs. For the enormous electric field intensity of 6.67 kV/cm, numerous tiny droplets, which distribute uniformly in the silicon oil, are produced by the breakup of larger daughter droplets and the large droplet located on the lower plate. This research has certain application value in the fields of oil treatment, electric demulsification and so on.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14

References

  1. Adamiak, K., Floryan, J.M.: Dynamics of water droplet distortion and breakup in a uniform electric field. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 47, 2374–2383 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Bailes, P.J., Lee, J.G.M., Parsons, A.R.: An experimental investigation into the motion of a single drop in a pulsed DC electric field. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 78, 499–505 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bararnia, H., Ganji, D.D.: Experimental investigation of water droplets’ behavior in dielectric medium: the effect of an applied D.C. electric field. Mech. Sci. 4, 333–344 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bartlett, C.T., Genero, G.A., Bird, J.C.: Coalescence and break-up of nearly inviscid conical droplets. J. Fluid Mech. 763, 369–385 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bateni, A., Susnar, S.S., Amirfazli, A., Neumann, A.W.: A novel methodology to study shape and surface tension of drops in electric fields. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 16, 153–157 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Beroual, A.: Dynamics of water droplets immersed in dielectric liquids submitted to electric stress. IEEE T. Dielect. El. In. 22, 359–365 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Brandenbourger, M., Caps, H., Vitry, Y., Dorbolo, S.: Electrically charged droplets in microgravity. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 29, 229–239 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chiesa, M., Melheim, J.A., Pedersen, A., Ingebrigtsen, S., Berg, G.: Forces acting on water droplets falling in oil under the influence of an electric field: numerical predictions versus experimental observations. Eur. J. Mech. B-Fluid. 24, 717–732 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Collins, R.T., Jones, J.J., Harris, M.T., Basaran, O.A.: Electrohydrodynamic tip streaming and emission of charged drops from liquid cones. Nat. Phys. 4, 149–154 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Demekhin, E.A., Polyanskikh, S.V.: Instability of slender liquid jet in AC electric field of arbitrary frequency. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 22, 369–375 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Eow, J.S., Ghadiri, M., Sharif, A.O., Williams, T.J.: Electrostatic enhancement of coalescence of water droplets in oil: a review of the current understanding. Chem. Eng. J. 84, 173–192 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ha, J.W., Yang, S.M.: Breakup of a multiple emulsion drop in a uniform electric field. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 92–100 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Ha, J.W., Yang, S.M.: Deformation and breakup of Newtonian and non-Newtonian conducting drops in an electric field. J. Fluid Mech. 405, 131–156 (2000)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hader, M.A., Jog, M.A.: Effect of drop deformation on heat transfer to a drop suspended in an electrical field. J. Heat Trans-T ASME. 120, 682–689 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Hokmabad, B.V., Sadri, B., Charan, M.R., Esmaeilzadeh, E.: An experimental investigation on hydrodynamics of charged water droplets in dielectric liquid medium in the presence of electric field. Colloid Surface A. 401, 17–28 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Hua, J.S., Lim, L.K., Wang, C.H.: Numerical simulation of deformation/motion of a drop suspended in viscous liquids under influence of steady electric fields. Phys. Fluids. 20, 113302 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Im, D.J., Kang, I.S.: Electrohydrodynamics of a drop under nonaxisymmetric electric fields. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 266, 127–140 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Imamura, O., Kubo, Y., Osaka, J., Sato, J.: Observation of sooting behavior in single droplets combustion in direct current electric fields under microgravity. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 17, 13–17 (2005)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Jaworek, A.: Micro- and nanoparticle production by electrospraying. Powder Technol. 176, 18–35 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kashina, M.A., Alabuzhev, A.A.: The dynamics of oblate drop between heterogeneous plates under alternating electric field. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 30, 11–17 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Khorshidi, B., Jalaal, M., Esmaeilzadeh, E., Mohammadi, F.: Characteristics of deformation and electrical charging of large water drops immersed in an insulating liquid on the electrode surface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 352, 211–220 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Lac, E., Homsy, G.M.: Axisymmetric deformation and stability of a viscous drop in a steady electric field. J. Fluid Mech. 590, 239–264 (2007)

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Lee, B.S., Cho, H.J., Lee, J.G., Huh, N., Choi, J.W., Kang, I.S.: Drop formation via breakup of a liquid bridge in an AC electric field. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 302, 294–307 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Mhatre, S., Thaokar, R.M.: Drop motion, deformation, and cyclic motion in a non-uniform electric field in the viscous limit. Phys. Fluids. 25, 072105 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Mhatre, S., Deshmukh, S., Thaokar, R.M.: Electrocoalescence of a drop pair. Phys. Fluids. 27, 092106 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Notz, P.K., Basaran, O.A.: Dynamics of drop formation in an electric field. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 213, 218–237 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Polyanskikh, S.V., Demekhin, E.A.: Stability of non-axisymmetric electrolyte jet in high-frequency AC electric field. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 21, 325–329 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Roy, S., Anand, V., Thaokar, R.M.: Breakup and non-coalescence mechanism of aqueous droplets suspended in castor oil under electric field. J. Fluid Mech. 878, 820–833 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Thaokar, R.M.: Dielectrophoresis and deformation of a liquid drop in a non-uniform, axisymmetric AC electric field. Eur. Phys. J. E. 35, 76 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Vivacqua, V., Mhatre, S., Ghadiri, M., Abdullah, A.M., Hassanpour, A., al-Marri, M.J., Azzopardi, B., Hewakandamby, B., Kermani, B.: Electrocoalescence of water drop trains in oil under constant and pulsatile electric fields. Chem. Eng. Res. Des. 104, 658–668 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Wang, T., Li, H.X., Zhao, J.F.: Three-dimensional numerical simulation of bubble dynamics in microgravity under the influence of nonuniform electric fields. Microgravity Sci. Technol. 28, 133–142 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Yudistira, H.T., Nguyen, V.D., Dutta, P., Byun, D.: Flight behavior of charged droplets in electrohydrodynamic inkjet printing. Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 023503 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Zhang, L., He, L., Ghadiri, M., Hassanpour, A.: Effect of surfactants on the deformation and break-up of an aqueous drop in oils under high electric field strengths. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 125, 38–47 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The present study is supported financially by Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province-China (E2019502151) and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2018MS105).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Tai Wang.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, D., Wang, T., Chen, S. et al. Experimental Investigation on Droplet Deformation and Breakup under Uniform DC Electric Field. Microgravity Sci. Technol. (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12217-020-09808-w

Download citation

Keywords

  • Electrohydrodynamics
  • Uniform electric field
  • Droplet deformation
  • Droplet breakup
  • Experimental investigation