The state of the art of gravimetry in Italy

Abstract

Relative and absolute gravimetric measurements are carried out for metrological, geodetic and geophysical (structural and dynamic) studies. Gravimetry is largely used in Italy since long time for vast set of studies. Both relative and absolute measurements are carried out in several fields of geodesy, geophysics and geodynamic with different approaches. After a brief historical excursus, the paper presents the state of the art of “Modern” gravimetry in Italy in its various applications, together the main available results and products, with particular attention to:

  • Development of modern gravimetry in Italy: from relative to absolute measurements.

  • Italian reference gravity networks: state of the art

  • The Italian gravimetric map: its evolution over time, data, the present-day status and related products.

  • Dynamic gravimetry: examples of applications in geodynamical areas.

Finally, suggestions for future perspectives for gravimetry in Italy are outlined.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2

modified from ISPRA website https://www.isprambiente.gov.it/en/projects/soil-and-territory/digital-gravity-maps-of-italy/the-gravity-dataset?set_language=en). (ISPRA authorizes to download from its website information content (software, images, etc.) protected by copyright if correctly cited and if used for personal and not commercial use as in the present case. Terms and conditions in )

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Note: In the SI system, the unit of gravity is ms−2. In geodesy and geophysics the use the auxiliary units mGal and µGal, derived from the unit Gal (1 Gal = 1 cm s−2), is still accepted: 1 mGal = 10–3 Gal/10–5 ms−2; 1 µGal = 10–6 Gal/10–8 ms−2..

  2. 2.

    https://www.isprambiente.gov.it/en/environmental-services/the-geological-survey-of-italy/the-history-of-the-geological-survey-of-italy.

  3. 3.

    https://www.isgeoid.polimi.it.

  4. 4.

    https://www.isprambiente.gov.it/en/projects/soil-and-territory/digital-gravity-maps-of-italy.

  5. 5.

    https://www.sinanet.isprambiente.it/it/sia-ispra/download-mais/cartografia-gravimetrica-digitale.

  6. 6.

    https://bgi.omp.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data.

  7. 7.

    https://webapp.geod.nrcan.gc.ca/geod/data-donnees/cgsn-rncg.php?locale=en.

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Acknowledgements

The author is very grateful to Mrs. Marina Loddo, librarian of the “Osservatorio Vesuviano,” for her great help and her precious collaboration in the search for ancient publications. The author also sincerely thank Dr. Federica Riguzzi and Dr. Filippo Greco for having provided information and/or figures useful for this publication. A special thanks to Prof. Gennaro Corrado and Prof. Fernando Sansò for their comments and suggestions. Grateful thanks to two anonymous Referees for their valuable and useful comments and suggestions that enriched the manuscript. Last, but not least, the biggest thanks go to her husband Carlo for the manuscript and English review, but above all for his patience, support and dedication.

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This peer-reviewed paper is a contribution originated from presentations at the International Conference “Earth’s Gravity Field and Earth Sciences" held on March 22, 2019, at Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome.

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Berrino, G. The state of the art of gravimetry in Italy. Rend. Fis. Acc. Lincei (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12210-020-00924-8

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Keywords

  • Gravimetry
  • Gravity reference networks
  • Bouguer maps
  • Dynamic gravimetry