The Darker Side of Military Mental Healthcare Part Two: Five Harmful Strategies to Manage Its Mental Health Dilemma

  • Mark C. Russell
  • Shawn R. Schaubel
  • Charles R. Figley
Article

Abstract

This is the second part of our analysis of the military’s mental health care dilemma. Since the First World War, military and government officials have been quite wary of mass psychiatric attrition and escalating pension costs from warzones. Specifically, the military worries about unknown repercussions should war stress injuries be de-stigmatized and treated equally as physical wounds, as required per the military’s own documented lessons learned. Leaders fear that so-called evacuation syndromes would spread, thereby depleting the fighting force for invalid reasons, eroding unit morale, and providing an acceptable escape from one’s military duties instead of the disapproval deserved, thus jeopardizing the military’s primary mission to fight and win wars, as well as risk possible financial strain in societies dealing with too many psychiatrically disabled veterans. Consequently, the military routinely admits to ignoring its war trauma lessons, resulting in a generational pattern of self-inflicted crises, including suicide epidemics. Moreover, besides neglecting such lessons, the military has adopted various approaches over time to reduce the possibility of evacuation syndromes by aggressively preventing psychiatric attrition, treatment, and disability pensions. After an extensive review of the war stress literature, we identified 10 overarching strategies the military has employed in order to resist fully learning from its lessons on the psychiatric realities of modern warfare by eliminating, minimizing, and/or concealing its mental health problem. Part two of the article series examines the following avoidance strategies intended to prevent psychiatric attrition and disability pensions: (1) Cruel and Inhumane Handling; (2) Legal Prosecution, Incarceration, and Executions; (3) Weaponizing Stigma to Humiliate, Ridicule, and Shame into Submission; (4) Denying the Realities of Mental Health; and (5) Screening and Purging Weakness. We argue that by not accepting the realities of the combat stressors, no effective methods for assessment and treatment of the stress reactions, not to mention prevention methods, have emerged that contributes to alleviating the veteran suicide and mental health crises.

Keywords

Mental health crisis Military Veterans War stress Policy PTSD Parity 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Statement

This study was unfunded and there are no conflicts of interests involving the authors.

References

  1. Acosta, J. D., Becker, A., Cerully, J. L., Fisher, M. P., Martin, L. T., Vardavas, R., Slaughter, M.E., & Schell, T. L. (2014). Mental health stigma in the military. RAND prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense Center for Military Health Policy Research. Santa Monica, CA.Google Scholar
  2. Annual Report of the Adjutant General. (1910). War Department Annual Reports 1910, at 176 (1910).Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Appel, J. W. (1966). Preventive psychiatry. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 373–416). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  4. Appel, J. W., & Beebe, G. W. (1946). Preventive psychiatry: An epidemiologic approach. Journal of the American Medical Association, 131(18), 1469–1475.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. (2012). Substance use disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces, 2000–2011. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report MSMR, November 2012 19(11), 11–16. Cited in Servies, T., Hu, Z., Eick-Cost, A., & Otto, J. L. (2012). Substance use disorders in the US Armed Forces, 2000–2011. MSMR, 19(11), pp. 11–16.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, P. (1929). Provisions for care of mental and nervous cases. In P. Bailey, F. E. Williams, & P. O. Komora (Eds.), The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War: Volume X Neuropsychiatry in the United States (pp. 39–55). Prepared under the direction of Maj. Gen. M. W. Ireland, The Surgeon General. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, K. A. (2011). The effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on military leadership: An historical perspective. Fort Leavenworth: United States Army Command and General Staff College, School of Advanced Military Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Baldor, L. C. (2014). Misconduct forces more soldiers out. Associated Press.Google Scholar
  9. Barrett, D. H., Resnick, H.S., Foy, D.W., Dansky, B.S., Flanders, W. D., & Stroup, N.E. (1996). Combat exposure and adult psychosocial adjustment among U.S. Army veterans serving in Vietnam, 1965-1971. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(4), 575–581.Google Scholar
  10. Beckham, J. C., Feldman, M. E., & Kirby, A. C. (1998). Atrocities exposure in Vietnam combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: Relationship to combat exposure, symptom severity, guilt, and interpersonal violence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(4), 777–785.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Berlien, I. C. (1966). Psychiatry in the army. In A. J. Glass, & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 491-522). Washington DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  12. Berlien, I. C., & Waggoner, R. W. (1966). Selection and induction. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 153–191). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  13. Bernucci, R. J. (1966). Forensic military psychiatry. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 475–488). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  14. Black, D. W., Carney, C. P., Peloso, P. M., Woolson, R. F., Lettuchy, E., & Doebbeling, B. N. (2005). Incarceration and veterans of the first Gulf War. Military Medicine, 170(7), 612–618.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Booth-Kewley, S., Highfill-McRoy, R. M., Larson, G. E., & Garland, C. F. (2010). Psychosocial predictors of military misconduct. Journal of Nervous Mental Disease, 198(2), 91–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Brill, N. Q. (1966a). Hospitalization and disposition. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army: Neuropsychiatry in World War II: Zone of interior (Vol. I, pp. 195–253). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  17. Brill, N. Q. (1966b). Station and regional hospitals. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army: Neuropsychiatry in World War II: Zone of interior (Vol. I, pp. 255–295). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  18. Brill, N. Q., & Kupper, H. I. (1966). Problems of adjustment in return to civilian life. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. In Neuropsychiatry in World War II: Zone of interior (Vol. I, pp. 721–733). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  19. Camp, N. M. (2014). U.S. army psychiatry in the Vietnam War: New challenges in extended counterinsurgency warfare. Fort Sam, Huston: Borden Institute, U.S. Army Medical Department Center and School.Google Scholar
  20. Cardona, R. A., & Ritchie, E. C. (2007). U.S. military enlisted accession mental health screening: History and current practice. Military Medicine, 172(1), 31–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Casscells, W. (2008). Rising to the challenges of PTSD. Pentagon News Release by Assistant Secretary Health Affairs on August 18, 2008.Google Scholar
  22. Chappell, R. A. (1945). Naval offenders and their treatment. Federal Probation, 9, 3–5.Google Scholar
  23. Chermol, B. H. (1985). Wounds without scars: Treatment of battle fatigue in the U.S. armed forces in the Second World War. Military Affairs: The Journal of Military History, Including Theory and Technology, 49, 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Da Costa, J. M. (1871). On irritable heart: A clinical study of a form of functional cardiac disorder and its consequences. Reprinted Da Costa, J. M. (1951). On irritable heart: a clinical study of a form of functional cardiac disorder and its consequences. The American Journal of Medicine, 11(5), 559–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dean, E. T. (1997). Shook over hell: Post-traumatic stress Vietnam and the Civil war. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Department of Defense. (2009). Department of Defense Directive 1020.02: Se management and equal opportunity (EO) in the Department of Defense of February 5. Retrieved from: www.deomi.org/DiversityMgmt/documents/DoD_Directive102002p.pdfwww.deomi.org/DiversityMgmt/documents/DoD_Directive102002p.pdf.
  27. Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health. (2007). An achievable vision: Report of the Department of Defense task force on mental health. Falls Church: Defense Health Board.Google Scholar
  28. Department of Navy. (2009). OPNAV instruction 5350.4D: Navy alcohol and drug abuse prevention and control of 4 Jun 2009. Washington, DC: Office of the Chief of Naval Operations.Google Scholar
  29. Department of Navy and U.S. Marine Corps. (2010). Combat and operational stress control. U.S. Navy, NTTP 1-15M; U.S. Marine Corps, MCRP 6-11C. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Department of the Army. (2006). Combat and operational stress control: Field manual (4–02.51) (FM 8–51). Retrieved from: http://armypubs.army.mil/doctrine/DR_pubs/dr_a/pdf/fm4_02x51.pdf.
  31. Department of the Army. (2009). Field manual 6–22.5: Combat and operational stress control manual for leaders and soldiers (p. 111). Washington, DC: US Dept. of the Army.Google Scholar
  32. Drimmer, F. (1992). Until you are dead: The book of executions in America. New York: Pinnacle Books.Google Scholar
  33. Eanes, R. H. (1951). Standards used by selective service and a follow-up on neuropsychiatric rejectees in World War II. In L. Carmichael & L. C. Mead (Eds.), Selection of military manpower: A symposium (pp. 149–156). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council.Google Scholar
  34. Executive Order No. 13625, Federal Register, 77(172). (2012). Improving access to mental health services for veterans, service members, and military families. Retrieved from: www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-09-05/pdf/2012-22062.pdf.
  35. Figley, C. R., & Nash, W. P. (Eds.). (2007). Combat stress injury: Theory, research, and management. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Finucane, M. I. (1900). General nervous shock, immediate and remote, after gunshot and shell injuries in the South African campaign. The Lancet, 156(4020), 807–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Forbes, D., Parslow, R., Creamer, M., Allen, N., McHugh, T., & Hopwood, M. (2008). Mechanisms of anger and treatment outcome in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21(2), 142–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Freedman, H. L. (1945). The mental-hygiene-unit approach to reconditioning neuropsychiatric casualties. Mental Hygiene, 269(2), 269–302.Google Scholar
  39. Freedman, H. L., & Rockmore, M. J. (1945). Mental hygiene frontiers in probation and parole services. Social Correctives for Delinquency, 44, 52–53.Google Scholar
  40. Freud, S. (1924). The loss of reality in neurosis and psychosis. In A. Richards (Ed.), On psychopathology (pp. 219–226). London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  41. Freud, A. (1936). The ego and the mechanisms of defense: The collected works of Anna Freud, Vol. 2. International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  42. Frizell, S. (2014). U.S. army firing more soldiers for misconduct: Number dismissed for crime or misconduct doubled between 2007 and 2013. Time. Retrieved from: http://nation.time.com/2014/02/15/u-s-army-firing-more-soldiers-for-misconduct/.
  43. Gaupp, R. (1911). Uber den Begriff der hysterie. ZgNP, 5, 457–466. Cited in Lerner, (2003) 38.Google Scholar
  44. Glass, A. J. (1966a). Army psychiatry before World War II. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 3–23). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  45. Glass, A. J. (1966b). Lessons learned. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 735–759). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  46. Glass, A. J., & Bernucci, R. J. (1966). Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior. Falls Church: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  47. Government Accountability Office. (2006). Post-traumatic stress disorder: DoD needs to identify the factors its providers use to make mental health evaluation referrals for service members. GAO-06-397 04: Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  48. Government Accountability Office. (2016). Human capital: Additional actions needed to enhance DoD’s efforts to address mental health care stigma. GAO-16-404: Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  49. Government Accountability Office. (2017). Defense health care: Actions needed to ensure post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury are considered in misconduct separations. GAO-17-260. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  50. Heaton, L. D. (1966). Forward. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (xiii-xiv). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  51. Henry, K., & Zanuck, D. F. (1949). Twelve o’clock high [Motion picture]. Los Angeles: Twentieth Century Fox.Google Scholar
  52. Highfill-McRoy, R. M., Larson, G. E., Booth-Kewley, S., & Garland, C. F. (2010). Psychiatric diagnosis and punishment for misconduct: The effects of PTSD in combat-deployed marines. BMC Psychiatry, 10(1), 88.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. Hiley-Young, B., Blake, D. D., Abueg, F. R., Rozynko, V., & Gusman, F. D. (1995). Warzone violence in Vietnam: An examination of premilitary, military, and postmilitary factors in PTSD inpatients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(1), 125–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hing, M., Cabrera, J., Barstow, C., & Forsten, R. (2012). Special operations forces and incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Journal of Special Operation Medicine, 12(3), 23–35.Google Scholar
  55. Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., & Eaton, K. M. (2006). Impact of combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan on family functioning: Findings from the Walter Reed Army Institute of research land combat study. In: Human dimensions in military operations—military leaders’ strategies for addressing stress and psychological support. Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-HFM-134, Paper 5. Neuilly-surSeine, France: RTO. 5.1–5.6.Google Scholar
  56. Hoge, C. W., Castro, C. A., Messer, S. C., McGurk, D., Cotting, D. I., & Koffman, R. L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 2004(351), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holbrook, J. G. (2010). Veterans’ courts and criminal responsibility: A problem solving history & approach to the liminality of combat trauma. Widener Law School Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10–43. Forthcoming. In: D. C. Kelly, D. Gitelson, & S. H. Barksdale (Eds.), Young veterans: A resilient community of honor, duty & need. New York: Springer. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=1706829
  58. Holden, W. (1998). Shell shock. London, UK: Channel 4 Books.Google Scholar
  59. Huie, W. B. (1954). The execution of private Slovik. Yardley: Westholme Publishing.Google Scholar
  60. Iacobelli, T. (2013). Death or deliverance: Canadian courts martial in the great war. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  61. Institute of Medicine. (2008). Gulf War and health: Physiologic, psychologic and psychosocial effects of deployment-related stress 6,(1). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  62. Institute of Medicine. (2012). Substance Use Disorders in the U.S. Armed Forces. Report Brief September, 2012. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  63. Institute of Medicine. (2014). Treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in military and veteran populations: Final assessment. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  64. Izzo, R. (2014). In need of correction: How the army board for correction of military records is failing veterans with PTSD. The Yale Law Journal, 123(5), 1118–1625.Google Scholar
  65. Johnson, A. W. (1969). Combat psychiatry: Part I historical review. Medical Bulletin, U.S. Army Europe, 26(10), 305–308.Google Scholar
  66. Joint Mental Health Advisory Team-8. (2013). Operation enduring freedom 2013 Afghanistan. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General United States Army Medical Command and Office of the Command Surgeon HQ, USCENTCOM and Office of the Command Surgeon U.S. Forces Afghanistan (USFOR-A).Google Scholar
  67. Jones, F. D. (1995). Psychiatric lessons of war. In F. D. Jones, L. R. Sparacino, V. L. Wilcox, J. M. Rothberg, J. W. Stokes, & J. W. (Eds.), Textbook of military medicine: War psychiatry (pp. 1–34). Washington, DC: Borden Institute, Office of the Surgeon General, U. S. Army.Google Scholar
  68. Jones, F. D. (2005). Military psychiatry after the first year of the Korean War. In A. J. Glass, F. D. Jones, L. R. Sparacino, & J. M. Rothberg (Eds.). Psychiatry in the U.S. Army: Lessons for community psychiatry (pp. 1–7). Bethesda, MD: Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.Google Scholar
  69. Jones, E. (2006). LMF: The use of psychiatric stigma in the royal air force during the second world war. The Journal of Military History, 70(2), 439–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones, E., & Wessely, S. (2005). Shell shock to PTSD: Military psychiatry from 1900 to the Gulf War. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  71. Jones, E., & Wessely, S. (2007). A paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychological trauma in the 20th century. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21(2), 164–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jordan, B. K., Marmar, C. R., Fairbank, J. A., Schlenger, W. E., Kulka, R. A., & Hough, R. L. (1992). Problems in families of male Vietnam veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 916–926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kay, A. G. (1912). Insanity in the army during peace and war, and its treatment. Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, 18(1), 146–158.Google Scholar
  74. Kessler, M. M. (1966). Troops in transit. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical Department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in World War II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 320–348). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  75. Kilpatrick, M. E. (2007). Statement by Michael E. Kilpatrick, MD Deputy Director, Force Health Protection and Readiness Programs, Department of Defense. In U.S. Congress House of Representatives (2007), Invisible casualties: The incidence and treatment of mental health problems by the U.S. military (pp. 63–79). Hearing before the U.S. Congress House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, First Session, May 24, 2007, Serial No. 110–111. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  76. Klostermann, K., Mignone, T., Kelley, M. L., Musson, S., & Bohall, G. (2012). Intimate partner violence in the military: Treatment considerations. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17(1), 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Knapp, L., & Weitzen, F. (1945). A total psychotherapeutic push method as practiced in the fifth service command rehabilitation center, Fort Knox, Kentucky. American Journal of Psychiatry, 102(3), 362–363.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kors, J. (2010). Disposable soldiers: How the pentagon is cheating wounded vets. The Nation, 290(16), 11–14.Google Scholar
  79. Lande, R. G. (2003). Madness, malingering & malfeasance. Washington, DC: Blassey’s Inc..Google Scholar
  80. Lerner, P. (2003). Hysterical men: War, psychiatry, and the politics of trauma in Germany, 1890–1930. London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Linden, E. (1972). The demoralization of an army: Fragging and other withdrawal symptoms. Saturday Review, 8, 12–17.Google Scholar
  82. Ludwig, A. O. (1949). Psychiatry at the Army level. In F. R. Hanson, & U.S. Army Medical Department (Ed.), Combat psychiatry: Experiences in the North African and Mediterranean theaters of operation, American ground forces, World War II (pp. 74–104). Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  83. MacCormick, A. H., & Evjen, V. H. (1945). The Army’s rehabilitation program for military prisoners. Social Correctives for Delinquency, 1, 8–11.Google Scholar
  84. Manual of Courts-Martial. (2012). United States. Washington, DC: The Joint Service Committee on Military Justice.Google Scholar
  85. Marlowe, D. H. (2001). Psychological and psychosocial consequences of combat and deployment: With special emphasis on the Gulf War. (No. MR-1018/11-OSD). Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  86. Marshall, H. (1840). On the enlisting, discharging, and pensioning of soldiers: With the official documents on these branches of military duty. Philadelphia: A. Waldie.Google Scholar
  87. Martin, J. A. (1992). Combat psychiatry: Lessons from the war in Southwest Asia. Journal of the U.S. Army Medical Department, PB 89-2-1/2, 40–44.Google Scholar
  88. Menninger, W. C. (1948). Reactions to combat. Psychiatry in a troubled world. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  89. Menninger, W. C. (1966). Public relations. In A. J. Glass & R. J. Bernucci (Eds.), Medical department United States Army. Neuropsychiatry in world war II volume I: Zone of interior (pp. 129–151). Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  90. Mental Health Advisory Team-V. (2008). Mental health advisory team (MHAT-V). Operation enduring freedom 06–08. Washington, DC: Office of the Surgeon Multinational Force-Iraq & Office of the Surgeon General, United States Army Medical Command.Google Scholar
  91. Mullen, M. G. (2011). Letter from Admiral Michael G. Mullen, Chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, to Hon. Eric K. Shinseki, Secretary of the Department of Veterans Affairs (Feb. 15, 2011).Google Scholar
  92. Neel, S. (1991). Vietnam studies: Medical support of the U. S. Army in Vietnam 1965–1970. Washington, DC: Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  93. Nelson, D. (2008). The war behind me: Vietnam veterans confront the truth about U.S. war crimes. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  94. Obama, B. H. (2011). Strengthening our military families: Meeting America’s commitment. Collingdale: Diane Publishing.Google Scholar
  95. Ogden, S. K., & Biebers, A. D. (2011). Psychology of denial (1st ed.). New York: Nova Publishing.Google Scholar
  96. Oppenheim, H. (1915). Der Krieg und die traumatischen Neurosen. In Der Krieg und die traumatischen Neurosen (pp. 3–28). Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Orr, D. W. (1941). Objectives of selective service psychiatric classification. Bulletin of Menninger Clinic, 5, 131–133.Google Scholar
  98. Owen, J. (2003). Multiple claimants versus ministry of defence, May 2003, p. 166. Cited in Jones, 2006.Google Scholar
  99. Patton Jr., G. S. (1947). War as I knew it. New York: Pyramid Books.Google Scholar
  100. Pietrzak, R. H., Goldstein, M. B., Malley, J. C., Rivers, A. J., & Southwick, S. M. (2010). Structures of posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosocial functioning in veterans of operation enduring freedom and Iraqi freedom. Psychiatry Research, 178(2), 323–329.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Plag, J. A., & Arthur, R. J. (1965). Psychiatric re-examination of unsuitable naval recruits: A two-year follow-up study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 122(5), 534–541.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Porter v. McCullum. (2009). 130 S. Ct. 447, 455, n.8.Google Scholar
  103. Reister, F. A. (1973). Battle causalities and medical statistics: U.S. army experience in the Korea War. Washington, DC: The Surgeon General, Department of the Army Report of the war office committee of enquiry into “shell shock.” (1922). London: Imperial War Museum.Google Scholar
  104. Resnick, H. S., Foy, D. W., Donahue, C. P., & Miller, E. N. (1989). Antisocial behavior and post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45(6), 860–866.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Russell, M. (2006a). Mental health crisis in the Department of Defense: DoD Inspector General Hotline Investigation #98829 submitted by Commander Mark Russell, USN on 05JAN2006. Available upon request via Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) at Department of Defense; Office of Freedom of Information, 1155 Defense Pentagon; Washington, DC 20301–1155.Google Scholar
  106. Russell, M. (2006b). The future of mental health care in the Department of Defense. Testimony before the Congressionally-mandated Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health, on 19–20 October 2006, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  107. Russell, R. T. (2009). Veterans treatment court: A proactive approach. New England Journal on Crime and Civil Confinement, 35, 357–364.Google Scholar
  108. Russell, M. C., & Figley, C. R. (2015a). Investigating recurrent generational wartime behavioral health crises: Part one of a preliminary analysis. Psychological Injury and Law, 8(2), 106–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Russell, M. C., & Figley, C. R. (2015b). Generational wartime behavioral health crises: Part one of a preliminary analysis. Psychological Injury and Law, 8(2), 132–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Russell, M. C., & Figley, C. R. (2017a). Do the military’s frontline psychiatry/combat and operational stress control doctrine help or harm veterans?—Part one: Framing the issue. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Russell, M. C., & Figley, C. R. (2017b). Do the military’s frontline psychiatry/combat operational stress control programs benefit veterans? Part two: Systematic review of the evidence. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(1), 24–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Russell, M. C., & Figley, C. R. (2017c). Is the military’s century-old frontline psychiatry policy harmful to veterans and their families? Part three of a systematic review. Psychological Injury and Law, 10(1), 72–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Russell, M. C., Figley, C. R., & Robertson, K. R. (2015). Investigating the psychiatric lessons of war and pattern of preventable wartime behavioral health crises. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science, 3(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Russell, M. C., Zinn, B., & Figley, C. R. (2016a). Exploring options including class action to transform military mental healthcare and ends the generational cycle of preventable wartime behavioral health crises. Psychological Injury and Law, 9(2), 166–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Russell, M. C., Butkus, S. N., & Figley, C. R. (2016b). Contribution of military organization and leadership factors in perpetuating generational cycle of preventable wartime mental health crises: Part one. Psychological Injury and Law, 9(1), 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Russell, M. C., Schaubel, S. R., & Figley, C. R. (2017). The darker side of military mental healthcare. Part one: Understanding the military’s mental health dilemma. In press. Psychological Injury and Law.Google Scholar
  117. Salmon, T. W. (1917). Recommendations for the treatment of mental and nervous diseases in the United States Army. New York: National Committee for Mental Hygiene.Google Scholar
  118. Salmon, T. W., & Fenton, N. (1929). Neuropsychiatry in the American expeditionary forces. In P. Bailey, F. E. Williams, P. A. Komora, T. W. Salmon, & N. Fenton (Eds.), Neuropsychiatry: The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War (Vol. 10, pp. 271–474). Washington, DC: Office of The Surgeon General, US Army.Google Scholar
  119. Santayana, G. (1905). Reason in common sense, volume 1 of the life of reason. Mineola: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  120. Seamone, E. R. (2011). Reclaiming the rehabilitative ethic in military justice: The suspended punitive discharge as a method to treat military offenders with PTSD and TBI and reduce recidivism. Military Law Review, 208(1), 1–212.Google Scholar
  121. Schaller, B. R. (2012). Veterans on trial: The coming court battles over PTSD. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
  122. Shaw, J. A. (1987). Psychodynamic considerations in the adaptation to combat. In G. Belenky (Ed.), Contemporary studies in combat psychiatry (pp. 117–132). Wesport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  123. Shepard, B. (2001). A war of nerves: Soldiers and psychiatrists in the twentieth century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Sobel, R. (1949a). Anxiety-depressive reactions after prolonged combat experience: The ‘old sergeant syndrome.’. In F. R. Hanson & U.S. Army Medical Department (Eds.), Combat psychiatry: Experiences in the North African and Mediterranean theaters of operation American ground forces, World War II (pp. 137–146). Honolulu: University Press of Pacific.Google Scholar
  125. Sobel, R. (1949b). The battalion surgeon as psychiatrist. In F. R. Hanson & U.S. Army Medical Department (Eds.), Combat psychiatry: Experiences in the North African and Mediterranean theaters of operation, American ground forces, World War II (pp. 36–44). Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  126. Stanton, M. D. (1976). Drugs, Vietnam, and the Vietnam veteran: An overview. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 3(4), 557–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Stapp v. Resor (1970). 314 F. Supp. 475 (S.D.N.Y. 1970).Google Scholar
  128. Strong, G. V. (1917). The administration of military justice at the United States disciplinary barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Journal of American Institute of Crime and Criminology, 8(3), 420–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sullivan, D. (1998). A matter of life and death: Examining the military death penalty's fairnesm. The Federal Lawyer, June, retrieved from: https://deathpenaltyinfo.org/us-military-death-penalty#overview
  130. Sutton, L. (2017). Thank you for your service! Documentary film. Produced by Donahue, T.Google Scholar
  131. Taft, C. T., Vogt, D. S., Marshall, A. D., Panuzio, J., & Niles, B. L. (2007). Aggression among combat veterans: Relationships with combat exposure and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, dysphoria, and anxiety. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2), 135–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Taft, C. T., Weatherill, R. P., Woodward, H. E., Pinto, L. A., Watkins, L. E., Miller, M. W., & Dekel, R. (2009). Intimate partner and general aggression perpetration among combat veterans presenting to a posttraumatic stress disorder clinic. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79(4), 461–468.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Teten, A. L., Miller, L. A., Stanford, M. S., Petersen, N. J., Bailey, S. D., Collins, R. L., Dunn, M. J., & Kent, T. A. (2010). Characterizing aggression and its association to anger and hostility among male veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Military Medicine, 175(6), 405–410.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. The Associated Press. (1999). GI'S Tell of a US Massacre in Korean War. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/1999/09/30/world/gi-s-tell-of-a-us-massacre-in-korean-war.html
  135. U. S. Army. (1888). The medical and surgical history of the war of the republic: Part III, volume I. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  136. U.S. Army. (1918). Circular no. 24 American expeditionary forces, France. Published on April 23, 1918. Washington, DC: Office of Surgeon, Headquarters, NATOUSA.Google Scholar
  137. U.S. Army. (1943). Circular letter no. 17. neuropsychiatric treatment in the combat zone. Published on 12 June 1943. Washington, DC: Office of Surgeon, Headquarters, NATOUSA.Google Scholar
  138. U.S. Army. (1944). Headquarters first special service force. Memorandum by P. Mitchell, Captain, Assistant Adjutant 1st Sp. Sv. Force of 13 November, 1944. Washington, DC: U.S. Army, APA 4994.Google Scholar
  139. U.S. Army. (1975). The army lawyer: A history of the judge advocate general’s corps, 1775–1975. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  140. U.S. Army. (1989). Army Regulation (A.R.) 11–33: Army Lessons Learned Program: System Development and Application. 10 October 1989. Washington, DC: Headquarters Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  141. U.S. Army (1998). Combat stress control in a theatre of operations: Tactics, techniques and procedures. FM 8-51. Washington, DC: Headquarters, Department of the Army.Google Scholar
  142. U.S. Army Air Force. (1942). Eighth Air Force Policy Letter 200.9x373 of 29 October, AFHRA, London.Google Scholar
  143. U.S. Army Eighth Air Force. (1944). The reclassification of personnel failures in the Eighth Air Force of 16 October 1944, 520.742–4, AFHRA.Google Scholar
  144. U.S. Army Military History Institute. (1944). Combat Lessons Number 5: Rank and file in combat-What they’re doing how they do it EO-10501 Restricted Report. Classified “Unrestricted” on 5 August 1986. Washington, DC: Combat Analysis Section, Operations Division, War Department.Google Scholar
  145. U.S. Navy. (2007). Mental health public affairs guidance of 23 January 2007. Unpublished document. U.S. Navy Medical Department, Navy Medicine West, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  146. Veterans Administration. (2015). Analysis of VA health care utilization among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. Released June 2015. Epidemiology Program. Post-Deployment Health Group. Office of Public Health. Veterans’ Health Administration. Washington, DC: Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.publichealth.va.gov/epidemiology.
  147. Ward, H. M. (2006). George Washington’s enforcers: Policing the continental army. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  148. Wells, M. K. (1992). Aviators and air combat: A study of the U.S. Eighth air force and RAF bomber command. (No. AFIT/CI/CIA-92-136). Department of War Studies, King’s College. London, UK: University of London.Google Scholar
  149. Winkenwerder, W. (2005). Mental health. Testimony of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs before the subcommittee on military personnel armed services committee. U.S. House of Representatives on July 26, 2005.Google Scholar
  150. Zoroya, G. (2007). Navy Psychologist: Navy faces crisis. USA Today. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-01-16-ptsd-navy_x.htm.
  151. Zwerdling, D. (2007, November 15). Army dismissals for mental health, misconduct rise. National Public Radio. Retrieved from: www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=16330374.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark C. Russell
    • 1
  • Shawn R. Schaubel
    • 1
  • Charles R. Figley
    • 2
  1. 1.Antioch University SeattleSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Tulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations