Pressure drop and flow characteristic of CO2 hydrate slurry formation in the presence of anti-agglomerant in a flow loop facility


Recently, research focus has shifted from the prevention of hydrate formation in oil/gas pipelines, to the utilization of gas hydrate in various areas of application, such as cold storage, district cooling, and gas transportation. This study, investigated the pressure drop and flow pattern analysis of CO2 hydrate slurry in the presence of anti-agglomerant in a flow loop. A series of experiments were carried out on CO2 hydrate slurry with (10 to 32) % mass fractions at flow rates of (5 to 7) kg/min in the presence of (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0) wt.% concentration of Tween 80 (Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate) in a flow loop. The results show that the CO2 hydrate slurry can be divided into two zones based on the pressure drop and temperature behavior; an active formation region, and a less active formation region. It was found that as the hydrate slurry mean flow rate was increased, the gradient of the pressure drop increased. From the flow visualization, three different flow regimes exist for CO2 hydrate slurries, namely homogeneous, heterogeneous, and bedding flow, and those flow regimes were highly dependent on the hydrate fraction in the slurry mixture.

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Flow loop internal diameter

f slu :

Friction factor of hydrate


Flow loop length

U slu :

Average velocity of hydrate slurry

X Hyd :

Hydrate mass fraction

ρ CO2sol :

Density of CO2-water solution

ρ Hyd :

Density of hydrate

ρ slu :

Density of hydrate slurry


Pressure drop


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This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2016R1D1A1B02010075).

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rin Yun.

Additional information

Benedict Prah is a Ph.D. at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University. He is studying the application of CO2 hydrate in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. Prah holds an MEng in Mechanical engineering from Hanbat National University.

Rin Yun is a Professor of Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon, South Korea. His research interests are utilizing natural refrigerants, transportation of captured CO2, and gas-hydrate as a secondary fluid.

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Prah, B., Yun, R. Pressure drop and flow characteristic of CO2 hydrate slurry formation in the presence of anti-agglomerant in a flow loop facility. J Mech Sci Technol 35, 761–770 (2021).

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  • Pressure drop
  • Anti-agglomerant
  • CO2 hydrate
  • Gas transportation
  • Flow patterns