Advertisement

KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 3321–3330 | Cite as

Evaluation of Compaction and Crushing Characteristics of Frozen and Unfrozen Sands Under Repetitive Compactions

  • Kichoel Lee
  • Chang Geun Song
  • Dongwook Kim
Geotechnical Engineering
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

In permafrost or seasonal frost regions, compactions are carried out under freezing conditions. Typical compaction characteristics under nonfreezing conditions are different from those under freezing conditions. To compare the compaction characteristics of frozen and unfrozen sands, a series of sand compactions was performed under nonfreezing temperature (15°C) and freezing temperature (-10°C). For each temperature, 50 compaction cycles producing 50 compaction curves were conducted on Jumunjin sands. After the 50 compaction cycles, compaction sensitivity, changes of dry unit weight, and particle size distribution curves were analyzed. As a result, for a given water content, dry unit weight increases with increasing accumulated compaction energy per unit sample volume under both the nonfreezing and freezing temperatures. Compaction sensitivity under the nonfreezing temperature was the lower than that under the freezing temperature. Nonetheless, compaction under the nonfreezing condition was more efficient compared with that under the freezing condition.

Keywords

compaction soil particle crushing nonfreezing temperature freezing temperature compaction sensitivity water content 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AASHTO T99 (2015). Standard Method of Test for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 2.5-kg (5.5-lb) Rammer and a 305-mm (12-in.) Drop, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Andersland, O. B. and Ladanyi, B. (2003). Frozen Ground Engineering, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, D. M. and Morgenstern, N. R. (1973). “Physics, chemistry and mechanics of frozen ground: A review.” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Permafrost, Yakutsk, U.S.S.R., North American Contribution, pp. 257–288, DOI: 10.1016/0148–9062(74) 91822–1.Google Scholar
  4. ASTM (2012). Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard. D698, West Conshohocken, PA, DOI: 10.1520/d0698-91r98.Google Scholar
  5. ASTM (1985). Classification of soils for engineering purposes, D2487, West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  6. Bernell, L. (1965). “Properties of frozen granular soils and their use in dam construction.” In Proc. Int. Conf. on SMFE, 6th, Montreal, Vol. 2, pp. 451–455.Google Scholar
  7. Ctori, P. (1989). “The effects of temperature on the physical properties of cohesive soil.” Ground engineering, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 26–27, DOI: 10.1016/0148-9062(90)90090-O.Google Scholar
  8. Das, B. and Khaled, S. (2013). Principles of geotechnical engineering, Cengage learning.Google Scholar
  9. Freitag, D. R. and McFadden, T. (1997), Introduction to cold regions engineering, New York, ASCE Press, pp. 291–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heiner, A. (1972). Strength and compaction properties of frozen soil, National Swedish Institute for Building Research, Sweden, pp. 71.Google Scholar
  11. Hwang, B. S., Chae, D. H., Kim, Y. S., and Cho, W. J. (2015). “An experimental study on the effectiveness of soil compaction at belowfreezing temperatures.” Korean Geo-Environmental Society, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 37–43 (in Korean), DOI: 10.14481/jkges.2015.16.1.37.Google Scholar
  12. Hwang, B. S., Chae, D. H., and Cho, W. J. (2017). “Evaluation of longterm deformation prediction model on frozen sand considering fine contents.” Korean Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 93–103 (in Korean), DOI: 10.12652/Ksce.2017.37.1.0093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ISO (2009). Cement-Test methods-Determination of strength, ISO 679, International Organization for Standardization, PAGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim, H. (2014). Dynamic analysis of dynamic cone penetration test for subgrade compaction assessment, Ph.D thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, K., Ji, S., Kim, H., and Kim, D. (2016). “Temperature effect on the compaction characteristic of cohesionless soil.” Journal of the Korean geotechnical society, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 53–62 (in Korean), DOI: 10.7843/kgs.2016.32.2.53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. NF EN 13286–2 (2010). “Unbound and hydraulically bound mixtures. Part 2: Test methods for laboratory reference density and water content–Proctor compaction.” Paris: Association Française de Normalisation; 2010, DOI: 10.3403/30212169.Google Scholar
  17. Seo, Y. K., Kang, H. S., and Kim, E. S. (2008). “A study for cold room experiments for strength properties of frozen soil.” Journal of the Korean Society of Ocean Engineers, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 42–49 (in Korean).Google Scholar
  18. Ting, J. M. (1981). The creep of frozen sand: qualitative and quantitative models, Research Report R81-5, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dept. of Civil Engineering, Cambridge, pp. 88–102, DOI: 10.21236/ada097668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Civil and Environmental EngineeringIncheon National UniversityIncheonKorea
  2. 2.Dept. of Safety EngineeringIncheon National UniversityIncheonKorea

Personalised recommendations